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Dramatis Personae of the History and Exploration of the Greater Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamirs, Hindu-Kush, Tibet, the Indian Sub-Continent, Afghanistan, High Tartary and Surrounding Territories, up to 1921.


Bill Buxton

Last updated May 27th, 2019

A work in progress.

"A Comparative View of the Principal Mountains 
in the World with their Altitudes"

The scan of this 1830 image was given to me be a colleague, Nahum Gershon, of Mitre Corp.  He found the original in a flea market in NYC.  It was accompanied by a penciled note saying: 

Hand-colored steel engraving of the Thos. Starling "Family Cabinet Atlas" London, Bull & Co., 1820.'

This date (1820) is different from the one printed on the engraving (1830) - a mistake of the writer in pencil?  Click on the image to get a high resolution version on which you can read the captions.





























This is a companion page to my pages on the literature, chronology and lexicon of terms and events around the history of Central Asia, including the history of exploration and mountaineering:


The simple matter is, I simply can't keep track of all of the people involved in the history and exploration of this part of the world, a region on which I focus most of my reading. Hence, as I encounter people of significance, I add them to this page, and then augment my notes about them as I encounter them further in other works, etc.  Hence, it serves me as an aid in remembering who was who, what they did, when they did it, and - perhaps most important - through the hyperlinks - helps capture how people, events, and books by-and-about them, relate to one another.  Trying to capture and understand the relationships seems as, if not more, important, than the individuals themselves.

In order to keep the page manageable, I have adopted a self imposed constraint to limit the period covered to before 1921, the date of the first Everest expedition.  Even with this constraint, this page, almost definition, incomplete, superficial, and sparse. Furthermore, I acknowledge drawing on the short British Library web site Who Was Who in Central Asia (British),  for some dates and facts.

Entries represent individuals, listed alphabetically by last name.  I speak none of the languages of the area, so I beg the reader's patience in my spellings, and in my choice of the name under which I index people.  I can only offer that I have done my best, and that the literature that I have reviewed is also inconsistent in both spelling and indexing conventions.  In many cases, I have tried to ensure that all common spellings are included, and with Chinese names, I have chosen to index according to the modern spellings, but with links from the older form.

There are four types of references on this page:

1.      In the body of the entries you will find certain names underlined and in blue.  These are people, events, or locations for which there is a separate entry that I have written in my pages.  Clicking on the indicated word will take you to that entry.

2.      In the body of the entries, you will also see things like: "[Cit. 1, 2, 3]".  These are links to pages on the internet written by others from which I have drawn information, or which are relevant to the person or event being discussed.  Just click on the digits to access the associated source.

3.      After many entries, you will find publications listed under the heading, "Refs".  These are books either by or about the person and events in the entry.  Those which have the title in blue and underlined are references that are in my personal library, listed on the page, Books on Climbing, Mountaineering & Exploration.  Clicking on the title will get you to the reference and my annotation to it.  Those which do not have links from their titles are relevant sources that are on my "wish list."  Where I do not have full bibliographic data, you will find the characters "XX" in the incomplete field.

4.      There are some general sources from the web which are listed at the end of this web page

Please think of this as an "open source" page.  As with all of my pages, comments and suggestions are welcome - especially suggestions for additional people to include, mini-biographies for them, or additions, corrections, etc.  to  biographical or bibliographic notes that I currently have. 

Finally, in many ways this page is rendered redundant in light of the Wikipedia.  At some point I will cross-reference my entries with it.  However, this page still has value in the fact that it lets me have tighter cross-links with my other, related pages.  Each has its own strengths. 


Abbott, Capt. James

British officer sent to Khiva from Herat in response to Perovsky's 1839 expedition to seize the city.  The objective was to convince the Khan to free the Russian slaves held in the city before the Russian force got too far.  In so doing, the idea was to remove the justification used for the invasion.  While he did not succeed in freeing the slaves, he did manage to treat with the Khan and get agreement to negotiate the freedom of the slaves with the Russians, should they halt their invasion.  As it turns out, the Russians were stopped by the weather, and the slaves were freed, nevertheless, by Abbott's fellow officer Shakespear, shortly thereafter, in 1840.


o    Abbott, Capt. James. (1843).  Narrative of a Journey from Heraut to Khiva, Moscow and St. Petersburg, During the Late Russian Invasion of Khiva;  With Some Account of the Court of Khiva and the Kingdom of Khaurism.  London:  Wm. H. Allen.


Abdul Kadir Khan

An Indian merchant and Moslem holy man active in Nepal, who served as Duncan's agent in Kathmandu during the second Tibetan-Nepalese conflict (1791-92).  In 1795 was dispatched by the East India Company to Kathmandu, with inventory, to set himself up as a trader in Nepal, with the objective of collecting information concerning potential trade with Tibet.  The idea was to see if Nepal could be a gateway for trade with Tibet, after 1792.  A trusted native trader was considered as having more chance of success in this than a European.  The mission was a success in that it established that there was a market for British good in Nepal, and that furthermore, many of these goods were subsequently exported to Tibet.  The primary issue was that the Gurkha middle-men stood between the British traders and Tibet, and that the commissions that they took diminished the business viability.


Abdurrahman Khan

See Abdur Rahman Khan.


Abruzzi, Duke of.  (Prince Luigi Amedeo of Savoy) (1873–1933).

An Italian noble who undertook a number of exceptional expeditions, including the first ascent of Mount St. Elias on the Alaskan border (1897), an attempt to reach the North Pole (1899-1900) which reached a point farther north than Nansen's record, the Ruwenzori mountains in Africa (1906) and an attempt on K2 (1909), on which he set a world altitude record of 24,600 ft.

Associated with the geographer Filippo de Filippi and the photographer Vittorio Sella, both of whom accompanied him to Mount St. Elias, Africa and K2.  On the K2 expedition, was also accompanied by the Brocherol brothers.


·         Audisio, Aldo (Ed.). (1991).  Alpinismo Italiano in Karakorum / Italian Mountaineering in the Karakoram.  Torino:  Museo Nazionale della Montagna <<Duca degli Abruzzi>>

·         Tenderini, Mirella & Michael Shandrick. (1977). The Duke of Abruzzi: An Explorer's Life.  Seattle: The Mountaineers.


Adam, J.

Secretary to the Indian Government during Anglo-Gurkha war of 1814-16.  Made the suggestion to establish relations with Sikkim during the war, as a means of establishing a diplomatic link with the Chinese in Lhasa. Given the close links between Sikkim and Tibet, the intent was to help mitigate against fears that the war might have a negative impact on Anglo-Chinese relations.  (See note on Dr. Buchanan.)  This led directly to the missions of Captain Latter and David Scott.


Afzal Khan (1811-1867)

Second son of Dost Mohammed and father of Abdur Rahman, (who himself became Amir of Afghanistan after the second Anglo-Afghan war).  Afzal had his land confiscated and was imprisoned by his brother, Amir Sher Ali.  This was during the five year struggle for power after the death of Dost Mohammed in 1863. When Rahman had temporary success against Sher Ali, and captured Kabul, he freed his father, and installed him as Amir in 1866.  However, Afzal Khan died of cholera 1867, and was briefly succeeded by his brother, Azim Khan.


Afzul, Sher

Brother of Aman-ul-Mulk.  Murdered Afzul-ul-Mulk, his nephew, whom he then succeeded as Mehar of Chitral.  Supported in this by Amir of Kabul.  Ousted by Nizam-ul-Mulk, Afzul's brother.   Nizam was encouraged to do so by Algernon Durand, who did not trust the Afghan influence on Afzul.  On being deposed, Afzul fled back to Afghanistan.



Son of Aman-ul-Mulk.  Seized Meharship on his father's death in 1892, and proceeded to kill rivals.  Meharship approved by Algernon Durand and Lockhart.  Murdered shortly after taking power by his uncle, Sher Afzul, who then succeeded him.


Agnew, P.A. Vans

Following the conclusion of the first Anglo-Sikh war, in July 1846 was appointed (along with Captain A. Cunningham) as joint commissioner to establish the boundary between Ladakh and Tibet.  The commissioners were also charged with investigating the state of trade with Tibet.


Ahmed (Ahmad) Shah Bahadur (1727 - 1775)

Succeeded father, Muhammad Shah, as Mugal emperor in 1748.  During his reign, his namesake, Ahmed Shah Abdali invaded the Punjab for the second time and obtained the cessation of the whole province.  In 1754 he was then deposed and blinded by his Wazir, Ghazi-ud-din, who placed Alamgir II, a son of Jahander Shah, on the throne.  He died the following year.


Ahmed (Ahmad) Khan, Shah Abdali (Durrani) (1722 - 1772)

Founder of the dynasty of the Popozai/ Saduzai branch of the Durranis.  Afghan military leader, known as the "Father of Afghanistan."  Sometimes referred to as Ahmed Shah Durrani or Ahmed Khan.  Had been one of the military leaders of Nadir Shah.   On Nadir's death in 1747, Ahmed not only had a number of troops at his disposal, he also had possession of his treasury, both of which he used to build up his power.  This he used to take control, initially of the territories of what was to become Afghanistan, and then made himself Shah, a position he maintained until his death in 1772. Founder of the dynasty of the Popozai branch of the Durranis (Duranni / Douranee) tribe.  In this, he was supported by the  Barukzais branch of the Durrani, led by Payanda Khan. The Popozai branch held power until the rise of Dost Mohammed., which brought  the Barukzais branch of the Durrani to power.  Between 1748 and 1769, Ahmed invaded India nine times, and established an Afghan hegemony over most of northwest India, including Kashmir, Sind and Delhi.  While he succeeded in uniting Afghanistan, he failed to consolidate his larger (Indian) empire, and it disintegrated on his death.  Had seven sons. Grandfather of Shah Shuja.  Ahmed Shah was succeeded by his son, Timur Shah.



See Kishen Singh.


Akbar, Jalal ud-Din Muhammad  (1543-1605)

Mughal emperor (1556-1605), succeeding his father, Humayun.  Known as Akbar the Great: Shah of Shahs. Mother tongue was form of Turki, and the state language was Persian. Considered the greatest of Mughal rulers (see Woodruff's, The Founders, for example).  Laid foundation for religious tolerance in the empire.  In 1562 married Padmini, a Hindu princess from Rajaputana. In 1564 abolished the Jizya, a "poll tax" that had been levied on non-Muslims.  Also reformed the system of land tax which was sustainable, in that it was fair, and did not "break the back" of those who worked the land.  Father of Jehangir, who succeeded him.


·         Eraly, Abraham (2003).  The Mughal Throne:  The Saga of India's Great Emperors.  London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.


Akbar Khan, Mohammed  (1818-1847)

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis. Oldest son of Dost Mohammed.  At 19 led a campaign to try and win back Peshawar from the Sikhs.  In 1841 returned to Kabul as one of the leaders during the uprising against the British during the First Anglo-Afghan war.  Treated with Macnaghten, but caught him in double dealing and  killed him in 1841, after playing the same game in reverse.  Double dealt with the British, and especially the incompetent Elphinstone, during their disastrous retreat.  Lived to see his father restored to the throne, but died at age 29, never assuming the throne, himself.


Akhun, Islam

Treasure hunter in region around Khotan.  In the mid 1890's was one of the prime sources for "ancient" manuscripts in a hitherto unknown language and script, which found their way into collections in London, Calcutta, St. Petersburg and Paris. Macartney bought a number of these for Hoernle.  As it turns out, there was a reason that the script was unknown.  As Stein was able to determine, it was made up by Akhun, and the manuscripts were forgeries that he had made.


Alamgir II, Muhammad Aizuddin (1699 - 1759)

Son of Jahandar Shah.  Placed on the throne as Mugal Emperor in 1754 by Ghazi-ud-din, the Wazir who had blinded, and deposed Ahmad Shah.  During his reign, in 1754, Ahmed Shah Abdali invaded the Punjab for the fourth time and captured Delhi.  Alamgir II was succeeded by his son, Shah Alam II in 1759, after he was murdered by Ghazi-ud-din.


Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great) (356-323 B.C.)

Between 343-323 BC conquered Central Asia.  He moved through the Persian empire, defeating the last of its provinces, Bactria, in 328 BC.  Proceeded through Afghanistan, and penetrated into the Punjab and Kashmir. [Cit: 1]


Ali Khan, Sardar Muhammad

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis. Son of Amir Sher Ali, and older brother of Yakub Khan.


Ali Mirza, Muhammad

Reported to be nephew of Dost Mohammed, but the name suggests that he was rather a member of Popozai branch of Durrani tribe.  Employed by Rambir Singh, Maharaja of Kashmir.  Sent to Kabul on intelligence mission in July 1889, and was present when the British embassy, under Cavagnari, was sacked.


Ali, Muhoomed (Mohammed)

Native surveyor from the Survey of India.  Educated at the Engineer Institute of Bombay.  Accompanied Burnes in his 1831 trip up the Indus, delivering 4 dray horses, which were a gift of the crown to Ranjit Singh.  Also traveled with Burnes to Bokhara in 1832.


Ali, Safdur

Hunza ruler.   Received Gromchevsky in 1888, which prompted visit by Younghusband. Obtained power by killing father, mother and two brothers.  Notorious for supporting raids from Hunza on caravans traveling between Ladakh and Yarkand, on the Karakoram route.  Due to this, was eventually deposed in 1891 by a British mission from Gilgit led by Algernon Durand.


Allard, Jean Francois (1785-1839)

French.  Served in the imperial army of France.  On defeat of Napoleon, came to Lahore, along with Ventura, in 1822 to seek service in the Sikh army of Ranjit Singh. On approaching the Khyber Pass, en route to Lahore, encountered the Hungarian Körösi, who traveled the rest of the way with their caravan. [Cit. 1 ]  Placed in charge of recruiting and training Ranjit Singh's cavalry. Returned to France on leave in June 1834 and returned 18 months later.  Allard continued to serve Singh until his death in 1839.


o    Grey, C. (H. L. O. Garrett, ed.) (1929). European Adventurers of Northern India, 1785 to 1849. Lahore, India: Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab.


Almeida, Diogo de

Portuguese merchant, who visited Ladakh in about 1600.  Returned to Europe from his trip to Goa, India, in 1603, and reported the existence of a Christian community surviving in Ladakh.  This report helped provide a catalyst for the subsequent trip of Father Antonio de Andrada.


o    Maclagan, Sir Edward. (1932).  The Jesuits and the Great Mogul.  London: XX.


Amanullah, Amir / King

Third son of Amir Habibullah.  Was Governor of Kabul at the time of his father's assassination in February of 1919.  Won out over his uncle, Nasrullah's claim to succeed Habibullah as Amir of Afghanistan.  Amanullah is suspected of being involved in his father's death.  Regardless, shortly after assuming control, capitalizing on unrest in India, and perhaps partially to divert attention from domestic affairs, declared a jihad against Britain on  May 5, 1919.  Afghans entered territories across  the northwest frontier of India, which had at times been part of Afghanistan, and this prompted the brief third Anglo-Afghan War.  Despite limited resources, partially due to this occurring on the tail of WW I, Britain nevertheless responded strongly and decisively to this incursion, and by May 31, Amanullah sued for peace.  Despite being soundly defeated, Afghanistan came off reasonably well from this conflict.  Amanullah retained his power, and, by the Treaty of Rawalpindi, Britain gave up its claim to control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs, but Afghanistan lost the subsidy that had hitherto been paid by Britain since the Treaty of Gadamank.  One consequence of this was that Afghanistan became one of the first countries to recognize and establish diplomatic relations with the new Soviet Russia.  Forced to abdicate in January of 1929, shortly after his 1927-28 tour of Europe.  Succeeded for 5 days by his older brother, Inayatullah.


Aman-ul-Mulk (??-1892)

Strong Mehar of Chitral for 35 years, who was considered a British ally at the time.  His death in August 1892 gave rise to a power struggle which lasted two years, with British intervention and the siege of Chitral as the outcome.  (See entry for Robertson.) The two years following his death were sufficiently chaotic that it is worth listing his successors during that period in order:  Afzul-ul-Mulk, Sher Afzul, Nizam-ul-Mulk, Amir-ul-Mulk, and Shuja-ul-Mulk, all of whom were his sons, except for Sher Afzul, who was his brother.  It is hard to match the ruthlessness and intrigue of this family!


Amherst, William Pitt (Amherst, Earl of) (1773-1857)

Sent as ambassador extraordinaire to China in 1816.  Got to China, but was not permitted to visit Beijing.  Mission a failure.  Governor-General of Bengal 1823-1828, following Lord Moira.   Succeeded by Lord William Bentick.  [Cit.  1 ].



Half-witted son of Aman-ul-Mulk, Mehar of Chitral.  Took asylum in Afghanistan with his Pathan uncle, Umra Khan, when his brother Afzul-ul-Mulk seized power on his father's death in 1892.  Became Mehtar of Chitral by murdering his half brother, the British supported Nizam-ul-Mulk.  Amir asked for British recognition from Gurdon, who had traveled there with a small escort of 8 men, to pay respects to Nizam.  Fearing for his safety, Gurdon stalled Amir, and sent a message to Robertson in Gilgit for help, which came.   While British were at Mastuj in January 1895, news came that Umra Khan had entered Chitral territory with an army, apparently at the request of Amir, who feared British retribution for the killing of Nizam.  This led to Robertson continuing on to the town of Chitral, and the subsequent siege.  Deposed by British (Robertson) and replaced by his 12 year old brother, Shuja-ul-Mulk.


Andrada (Andrale), Father Antonio de (1580  - 1634)

A Jesuit father.  Partially motivated by the reports of Christian communities surviving in Tibet (such as from Goes and Almeida), left on his first trip from the mission in Agra, near Delhi, in 1624.  Was accompanied by a lay brother, Manuel Marques.  Traveled to western Himalayan province of Guge, visiting the capital of Tsaparang.  Stayed three weeks before returning to Agra.  Returned in 1625 to establish a permanent mission in Tsaparang.  Father Andrada was called back to Goa, in 1630, and died there in 1634.  The mission in Tsaparang was closed in 1635.  An attempt to reopen it in 1640 failed.


o    Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.


Ashraf Khan (XX - 1730)

Son of Mahmud, who he succeeded on his father's death in 1725.  Halted attempt by Turks to invade Persia, and consolidated Afghan control of the country.  In 1727 signed a peace treaty with Turks that gave him control over Persia in exchange for recognition of Turkish religious supremacy in Islam.  The Afghan position in Persia was ended by the rise of Nadir Shah, who was

in the service of Shah Tahmasp, and Ashraf Khan was killed in 1730 during a retreat following a defeat by his army.


Auckland, George  Eden, Earl of, 2nd Baron Auckland, 2nd Baron Auckland of Auckland, Baron Eden of Norwood (1784-1849)

In 1836 became governor-general of British India, in Calcutta. Succeeded Charles Metcalfe.  Wrote letter which alienated Afghan leader, Dost Mohammed, demanding that he both give up his claims to Peshawar, and stop his interactions with the Russians.  The letter held a veiled threat of dire consequences should he not comply, and as such, undermined the relationship built up with him by Burnes.  Encouraged by Macnaghten, and against the advice of Burnes, issued the Simla Manifesto, October 1st 1838.  This committed the British to restoring Shah Shujah as Amir of Afghanistan, at the expense of Dost Mohammed.  The justification was ostensibly Dost Mohammed's lack of loyalty in treating with the Russians (who had already withdrawn due to the pressure put on them by Palmerston).  The condition of restoring Shah Shujah was that he relinquish any claims on Peshawar, in favour of Ranjit Singh.  The Simla Manifesto was enforced in 1839, by British troops, the "Army of the Indus," led by General Keane, thus precipitating the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-1842).  Succeeded by Lord Ellenborough in 1842.


o    Trotter, Lionel James (XXXX).  Lord Auckland. XX:  XX.


Aurangzib (Aurangzebe / Aurungzebe) Alamgir (1618-1707)

Third son of Shah Jehan.  In 1658 Shah Jehan became ill, and Aurangzib took the opportunity to seize the throne, kill his brothers, and imprison his father, who remained in captivity until his death eight years later in 1666.  Aurangzib was the last of the great Mughal emperors.  While there was an emperor in name until the mutiny in 1857, their power was increasingly symbolic, being weakened by internal fighting, self indulgence and incompetence, coupled with the increasing power of the British.

Aurangzib was emperor of Hindustan for almost 50 years, from 1659 -1707.  His reign doomed any chance of future harmony between Hindu and Muslim.  He reversed the religious tolerance towards non-Muslims established by Akbar, destroying temples and idols, and, in 1679, reinstated the Jizya, the "poll tax" for non-Muslims.  The latter part of his reign was marked by overextending himself in wars with Sikhs, Marathas and Rajputs.  Was succeeded by his eldest son, Muazzin (Bahadur Shah).

Avitabile, Paolo Di (1791-1850)

Born in Agerola and began service in the Neopolitan militia.  Following fall of Napoleon, ended up serving as a mercenary in Persia.  Then moved to the Punjab where, along with Allard, Ventura and Court, became one of the four principal French officers serving Ranjit Singh.  In 1835 was appointed Governor of Peshawar, and established order, albeit by ruthless means. He held that post during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-1842), his presence being strategic to the British. (The possession of Peshawar was the source of dispute between the Sikhs and Afghans.  It had been taken by Ranjit Singh's army in 1834, and it was one of the bargaining chips used by the British in soliciting the support of the Sikhs during the war.)  Avitabile left Peshawar in 1843, and returned to Italy.  He is one of the few adventurers who built a fortune and was able to leave with it.



o    Cotton, Julian James (1906).  General Avitabile. Calcutta:  Edinburgh Press.

o    Grey, C. (H. L. O. Garrett, ed.) (1929). European Adventurers of Northern India, 1785 to 1849. Lahore, India: Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab.


Aylmer, Cat. Fenton

British sapper.  Member of expedition led by Algernon Durand to Hunza in 1891.  Despite being wounded, set charges at the gates of Nilt, in Nager, which when exploded, enabled the fort to be taken.


Ayub Khan, Mohammed (1857-1914)

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis.  Fifth son of Sher Ali by his third wife Mariam Begum.  Governor of Herat.  In 1874 fled to Merat, fearing that his father would imprison him, as he did his brother Yakub Khan.   Returned to Herat as governor in 1879, when Yakub became Amir.  He established himself as Amir at Herat from March 1880.  In that year he set out from Herat with a large force with the intent of pushing the British Garrison in Kandahar out of Afghanistan, and to assert his claimed succession as Amir, following the abdication/removal of Yakub.  On July 27, 1880, engaged the British under Brigadier-General George Burrows 60 km west of Kandahar at Maiwand.  Severely defeated the British, who suffered over 1,000 casualties, and were pushed back to Kandahar and placed under siege.   General Roberts, who was about to evacuate Kabul, on hearing of this disaster rushed to relieve the garrison.  His force of 10,000 made a remarkable forced march of 300 miles in 20 days.  On hearing of Roberts' advance, Ayub Khan retreated from the siege, and tried to negotiate.  Roberts refused and engaged the Afghan force, on September 1, soundly defeating them (35 British fatalities compared to over 600 Afghan).  The British subsequently withdrew from Kandahar, and ceded it to the Amir of Kabul, Ayub Khan's cousin Abdur Rahman. However, it  was taken back by Ayub Khan in June 1881.  This was not to last, and in July of that year he was pushed back from  Kandahar and while tied up there, Abdur Rahman also sent a force to Herat, which they captured.  The result was that Ayub was forced into exile in Persia, and Abdur Rahman was established as Amir of all of Afghanistan, rather than just Kabul.   In the summer of 1888, Ayub attempted to return to Afghanistan to join the governor of Balkh, Ishaq Khan, who was rebelling against Abdur Rahman.  He was headed off, however, and consequently surrended for protection to General MacLean, the British agent at Meshed.  He then retired to India.


Azevedo, Luiz de (1573-1634)

Jesuit missionary from Portugal active in Afghanistan.  He became a Jesuit in 1588, and sailed for the Indies in 1592. In 1605 he began his missionary labours in Ethiopia, where he remained until his death. Was one of the first Europeans to cross the Himalaya.  In 1631 he reached Leh by the Mani Pass and then returned to India by Baralacha and Rohtang Passes.


Azim Khan (1818-1869)

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis.  Not to be confused with his uncle of the same name (see next entry).  Oldest son of Dost Mohammed. Died childless. Became Amir after his brother, Amir Afzal Khan died of cholera 1867.  This prompted a conflict with Afzal's son, Azim's nephew, Abdur Rahman.  The resulting power struggle  provided the opportunity for Sher Ali, Azim and Afzal's brother to regain control, in 1868.  Azim fled to India on being deposed.


Azim Khan, Muhammed (1785-1823)

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis.  Not to be confused with his nephew (see previous entry). Second oldest brother of Dost Mohammed.  Governor of Peshawar 1809-1813, and of Kashmir 1813-1819.



Babur (1483 - 1530)

Great grandson of Tamerlane, and son of Omar Sheikh Mirza. Also was thirteen generations descended from Genghis Khan's second son, Chaghatai.  At the age of 11, he succeeded his father as ruler of Turkistan.  In 1526 he defeated Ibrahim, the Sultan of Delhi at Panipat in the Punjab.  He then captured Delhi and Agra, thereby establishing the Mughal dynasty in India, which included 17 rulers and finally ended in 1857, with Bahadur Shah II, following the Sepoy Mutiny.  Babur was succeeded by Humayun.


o    Eraly, Abraham (2003).  The Mughal Throne:  The Saga of India's Great Emperors.  London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.


Bahadur Shah (Muazzim) (1643 -1712)

Oldest son of Aurangzib, who he succeeded as Mughal emperor of Hindustan in 1707.  At the time of his father's death, Bahadur was governor of Kabul.  He had killed his brothers on the battlefield.  He was almost 70 years old when he ascended to the throne and reigned for only 5 years.  He died in 1712.  In the wars of succession after his death, three of his four sons were killed, with the only remaining one being his eldest son, Jahander Shah, who succeeded him.  Bahadur was uncle of Farruksiyar, who succeeded Jahander, and grandfather of Roshan Akhtar (Muhammed Shah), who in turn succeeded Farruksiyar.


Bahadur Shah II (XX - 1862)

The last of the Mughal emperors.  By the time that he came to the throne, there was no power and he was a symbolic puppet of the British.  The charade ended in 1857 with the Sepoy Mutiny, when he was declared independent emperor of India by the mutineers.  After the rebellion, he and his family were exiled to Burma.


Bailey, Col. Frederick Marshman (Eric) (1882-1967)

Joined Indian army in 1900. Particpated in Younghusband Mission in 1903/4, following which was part of expedition to Gartok led by Rawling. Assigned to Indian Political Service in December 1905 ( and releaved O'Conner as political agent at Gyantse until Nov. 1906, while the latter was on leave. Then appointed trade agent in the Chumbi Valley until August 1909. In 1911, while on leave, travelled overland from Beijing, through Tibet, to Assam with the intent of exploring the Tsangpo River.  He was stopped in Tibet.  However in 1913, he returned to Tibet and the lower Tsangpo.  This time he travelled with Morshead, from Assam (the first Europeans to do so).and was able to disprove the popular belief that there was a great waterfall where the river cut through the Himalaya.  On the return to India, they mapped regions along the Tibet / Burma / Assam border.  (This survey was timely with respect to the conference led by McMahon, and which led to the Simla Convention.)  Bailey was awareded the Royal Geographical Society Gold Medal for this trip.  In all of his trips, Bailey was an avid collector of flora and fauna.  There are a large number of flowers, butterflies, etc. whose names reflect his discovery of them to western science. He left Political Service in 1938, having spent the years 1918-24 invovled in espionage in Soviet Russia.


o    Bailey, F.M. (1945). China, Tibet, Assam. A Journey, 1911. London: Jonathan Cape .

o    Bailey, F.M. (1946). Mission to Tashkent. London: Jonathan Cape

o    Bailey, F.M. (1957). No Passport to Tibet. London: Rupert Hart-Davis.

o    Swinson, Arthur (1971).  Beyond the Frontiers:  The Biography of Colonel F.M. Bailey Explorer and Special Agent. London: Hutchinson & Co.


Barlow, Sir George Hilaro (1762-1847)

Nominated as provisional Governor General of Bengal 1805-1807, on the death of Cornwallis.  His nomination was not accepted by the home government, and  Lord (1st Earl of) Minto was appointed. Made governor of Madras, but recalled in 1812. [Cit.  1 ].

Barrett, Robert Le Moyne (1871 - 1969) and Katharine Ruth (née Ellis) (1879 - XXXX)

Even for travelers, the Barretts were an unusual couple - having a penchant for living for prolonged periods in tents in high places, be they a winter above Ladakh or a mountain top in the Canary Islands. Some of Robert's earliest climbs were in the Canadian Rockies, where he made two trips to Mount Assiniboine with Walter Wilcox (see account below by Wilcox) where they were the first to approach the mountain as well as circumnavigate it. 

One of the main contributions that the Barretts gifted the mountaineering community is the only first person, self authored book from the early days, by someone native to the great ranges of Central Asia, Ghulam Rassul Galwan's 1923, Servant of the Sahibs: A Book to be Read Aloud.  Captivated by the fire-side stories of their sirdar, Galwan, the Barretts taught him to write in order that he could put them to paper on his own.  They then arranged for the book to be published, without editing (other than for comprehension), and they themselves remained anonymous in the volume which resulted.  Even if it was not the only such book, it would still be in the top-10 favourites in my library.  And as the sub-title states, it must be read aloud, since doing so will transport you to a different time and place, captured by the spell of Galwan's voice.

Since my notes on the Barretts are not yet complete, here are two pointers for background, besides reading their diverse books, see the brief Peakfinder biography, and Wilcox's article - both below, and freely available on the web.


Battuta, Ibn (c.1304 - c.1369)

Arab traveler born in Tangier.  Began his travels in 1325, on a Hajj to Mecca.  From there he carried on.  He visited Iraq, Persia, and East Africa.  He then went on to India, the Maldives, Malaysia and China.  He returned home from his travels in about 1354, and dictated his story to scribes.  He is often referred to as the "Marco Polo of the Arab World."


o    Dunn, Ross E. (1986). ThThe Adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim Traveler of the Fourteenth Century.  Berkeley: University of California Press.

o    Gibb, H. A. R., Beckingham, C. F.  & Bivar; A. D. H. (eds.)(1958-2000).  The Travels of Ibn Battuta, A. D. 1325 - 1354.  5 vols.   Cambridge:  The Hakluyt Society.

o    National Geographic (1991).  Ibn Battuta, Prince of travelers. National Geographic, vol 180, no. 6/ December.


Beg, Mohammed Yakub (1820-1877)

In 1864, Yakub Beg  led a successful Uighur (Uyghur) revolt in East Turkistan against the Manchu Chinese.  This pushed the Chinese temporarily out of control of the region, and established Muslim control.  This was in the middle of "The Great Game" between Russia and British India, and it was during Yakub Beg's tenure that Hayward and Shaw visited, and were held, in Kashgar.  British India's desire to establish trade relations with Beg led to the 1st and 2nd Forsyth Missions.

To check the advance of Yakub to the west, the Russians who had captured Tashkent (27 June, 1865) took possession of Ili (Kulja), i.e. the north of the T'ien-shan, on 4 July, 1871.  This Russian expansion  led the British to put pressure on the Manchu court to re-annex East Turkistan. This they began in 1876, led by General Zho Zhung Tang. Yakub Beg was poisoned in 1876 and died the next year. By 1878, East Turkistan was once again under Chinese rule. After this invasion the region was given the name Xinjiang which means "new territory". (Sources: 1, 2).

Bekovich, Prince Alexander

See Cherkasski, Prince Alexander Bekovitch


Bell, Sir Charles

British Political Officer in Sikkim, and then Tibet at the beginning of the 20th Century.  Developed a close relationship with the 13th Dalai Lama, for whom Bell was responsible  when, from 1910-12, he fled Lhasa for Darjeeling, due to the Chinese invasion of Tibet.  Bell is also the official who, in 1920, Col. Howard-Bury had to sway in order to gain permission for the 1921 British Everest Reconnaissance Expedition, since it needed to approach the mountain through Tibet


o    Bell, C. (1924).  Tibet:  Past & Present.  London:  Oxford University Press.

o    Bell, C. (1928). The People of Tibet.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press

o    Bell, C. (1931). The Religion of Tibet. Oxford:  Clarendon Press

o    Bell, C. (1946). Portrait of a Dalai Lama.  London:  Collins.


Benjamin of Tudela, Rabbi

Spanish Rabbi who traveled (1160-1173) from Spain, through Syria, Bagdad, Persia and to the frontiers of China.


o    Komroff, Manuel (ed.)(1928).  Contemporaries of Marco PoloNew York:  Boni & Liveright.


Bentick, Lord William (1774-1839)

Succeeded  Lord Amherst as governor-general of Bengal (1828-1833). Appointed Governor General of India (1833-35).  Succeded by Charles Metcalfe.


Billi, Francesco Orazio della Penna di (1680- 1745)

A Capuchin father who dedicated 33 of his 65 years to the mission in Tibet.  In 1717-18 spent 9 months in the Sera Monastery, in Lhasa, studying the Tibetan language, where he began compiling a Tibetan-Italian dictionary which he finished (33,000 words) and published in 1732.  He also translated a number of Tibetan books, including The Life of the Buddha, and Tibetan Book of the Dead. Spent about a decade alone in Lhasa with one other Capuchin, Father Giovacchino. leaving in 1729.  Then spent two years at the Kathmandu mission before returning to Rome.  Returned to Lhasa from 1739-40.  Was forced to leave Tibet for Nepal in 1745.  Died in Kathmandu. [Cit:1]


Blacker, Valentine (1778-1826)

Surveyor general of India 1823-36, appointed on the death of Lambton.   On this appointment, the Great Trigonometric Survey (GTS), now supervised by Everest, came under his orders.


Blavatsky, Elena Petrovna (1831-1891)

Mystic, co-founder (with Henry Steele Olcott) of the Theosophical Society.  Russian daughter of German father.[Cit: 1, 2]


Bogle, George (1746-1781)

Scottish. Collector of Rangpur. In 1774, sent by Warren Hastings on a mission to investigate the potential for trade between Tibet and the East India Company.  From the perspective of trade, the mission was a failure, and Bogle did not make it to Lhasa, nor meet the Dalai Lama.  He did, however, become close to the regent, the Tashi Lama, and produced one of the best and earliest narratives describing Tibet in the 18th Century.  He was accompanied on his trip by Alexander Hamilton.  A summary of the references to the mission of Bogle in contemporary Tibetan texts can be found in the article by Petech, referenced below.


o    Markham, Clements, R. (1876). Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa. London: Trübner & Co.

o    Petech, Luciano. (1949). "The missions of Bogle and Turner according to the Tibetan texts". T'oung Pao, XXXIX, 330-346.

o    Woodcock, G. (1971).  Into Tibet:  The Early British Explorers.  London:  Faber & Faber.


Bonvalot, Pierre Gabriel Édouard (1853–1933)

French explorer.  In 1880–82 traveled through Kohistan, and returned to France by way of Bokhara, the Caspian Sea, and the Caucasus.  In 1890 appeared in Tibet, traveling with Prince Henry d'Orleans, and was turned back north of Lhasa.


o    Bonvalot, Gabriel (1889).  Through the Heart of Asia: over the Pamir to India. 2 Volumes.  London: Chapman and Hall.

o    Bonvalot, Gabriel (1891).  Across Tibet (1889-1890) - Being a Translation of "De Paris Au Tonkin a Travers Le Thibet Inconnu." With Illustrations from Photographs Taken By Prince Henry of Orleans and Map of India. Translated By C B Pitman. 2 Volumes.  London: Casse & Company.


Bose, Kishen Kant

Agent sent by David Scott to Lhasa, via Bhutan in 1815.  Failed to get into Tibet.


Bower, Lieut. (later Maj. General Sir)  Hamilton (1858-1940)

Indian army intelligence officer.  In 1889, while on a shooting expedition in Chinese Turkistan, (where he was also hunting the murderer of the Scottish explorer Andrew Dalgleish), he purchased a number of Sanskrit documents.  They were written on leaves, and were found by treasure-hunters digging in a ruined temple near the town of Kuchain .  They dated from about the 5th century A.D.  This discovery, now known as "The Bower Manuscript" was extremely important, and stirred a hunger for artifacts by foreigners.

In 1891-2 made a trip from Ladakh, through Tibet, almost to Lhasa, then on to China.  Was accompanied by another officer, Surgeon-Captain W.G. Thorold, and the pundit, Atma Ram, who paced the route.  This resulted in the first European crossing of the Tibetan plateau.


o    Bower, Hamilton. (1894). Diary of a Journey Across Tibet.  London: Rivington.



Two brothers who were mountain guides that accompanied Tom Longstaff on his (then) altitude record setting ascent of Trisul (23,406'), and in 1909 accompanied the Duke of Abruzzi to K2.


Brown, John

See Henry Potter.

Bruce, Brigadier-General Charles Granville (1866–1939)

British officer in India and early explorer and mountaineer in the Himalaya and Karakoram.  Accompanied Conway in his 1892 exploration of the Baltoro region of the Karakoram.

In 1893 accompanied Dr. Robertson on his mission to Chitral to bestow recognition on Nizam-uk-Mulk as Mehtar.  Was accompanied on this mission by Younghusband, and it was during this mission that he and Younghusband likely became the first to discuss mounting an expedition to explore Everest.  In Himalayan Wanderer, Bruce says that it was Younghusband's idea.  In The Epic of Mount Everest, Younghusband says that it was Bruce's.

Joined Mummery's 1895 attempt on Nanga Parbat for a while, but had to depart early due to his leave being up.  Also climbed with Longstaff on Trisul in 1907.  Led the second Everest expedition in 1922. He also started off leading the third, 1924, expedition, but  had to drop out due to malaria.  Edward Norton took over leadership.


o    Bruce, C.G.  (1910). Twenty Years in the Himalaya. Edward Arnold, London

o    Bruce, C.G.  (1914). Kulu and Lahoul. An account of my latest climbing  journeys in the Himalaya. Edward Arnold, London

o    Bruce, C.G.  (1923). The Assault on Mount Everest, 1922.  London: Longmans, Green & Co.

o    Bruce, C.G.  (1934). Himalayan Wanderer. London: Alexander Maclehose & Company.

Bruce, Captain Geoffrey (1896-1972)

Was a British officer in the Indian Army, and the cousin of General Charles Bruce, leader of the 1922 Everest expedition.  Despite having no previous climbing experience, his experience in India and skills in logistics let to his being invited to join the expedition in the capacity of transportation officer and interpreter.  Due to a range of circumstances, including illness amongst the climbers, Geoffrey Bruce, along with a Gurkha NCO  from his regiment, Tejbir Bura (who, likewise, had no previous climbing experience), joined George Finch on a push from base camp on an attempt to get as high as possible - hopefully the summit. The three pushed above the North Col towards the north shoulder, where a storm forced them to camp.  The next day they proceeded, however Tejbir turned back to the last camp due to fatigue, while Finch and Bruce continued using supplemental oxygen.  In their push they reached 8,300 metres, which exceeded the previous high point (which had been reached by Mallory, Norton and Somervell without supplementary oxygen).  Hence, Finch and Bruce set a new world altitude record - and did so on Bruce's first climb!

In 1924, Bruce was again invited to join the Everest expedition, this time in the capacity of both Transportation Officer and climber.

Brydon, Dr. William

Initially appeared to be the only survivor of the British retreat from Kabul during the First Anglo-Afghan war.  In 1842 he rode up alone, wounded, to the British garrison in Jalalabad and provided the first news of what had happened during the retreat.  Subsequently, other survivors made it home, as did most of the hostages, who were returned by Shakespear.  Later, Brydon was one of the British caught in the siege of Lucknow, and liberated in November, 1857.  His own account of his famous ride to Jellalabad can be found in the following:



o    Lawrence, George (1874).  Reminiscences of Forty-Three Years in India. Including the Cabul disasters, captivities in Afghanistan and the Punjaub, and a narrative of the mutinies in Rajputana.  London:  John Murray.

o    Patrick Macrory (Ed.)(1969).  Lady Sale.  London: Archon.


Buchanan, Dr.

Accompanied Captain Knox to Kathmandu in 1801.  Was the main advisor on Nepal to the East India Company during the Anglo-Gurkha conflict of 1814-16.  Warned of potential problems with Anglo-Chinese relations due to the Britsh activity in Nepal, which China considered as falling within their sphere.  This warning was supported by intelligence provided by Mir Izzet Ullah.  To mitigate the risk, on the advice of J. Adam, the British established relations with Sikkim in the hopes of using this as a base for establishing a dialogue with the Chinese in Lhasa.  Furthermore, Buchanan suggested that upsetting the Chinese could be avoided if the British did not annex Nepal, but rather just punished the Gurkhas, and restored the Newar chiefs (who the Gurkhas had deposed) back to power.  As it turns out, since there were no descendents of the Newars to be found, Nepal remained in the hands of the Gurkhas after the war, leading to it remaining an independent state right up to the present.  (Lamb, 1960).


Burnes, Sir Alexander (1805-1841)

British traveler in Indian frontier. Went to India as cadet at age 16.  As an army officer in India, he studied Hinustani and Persian, and eventually transferred from the Bombay Native Infantry to the Political branch, where he was assistant to Sir Henry Pottinger, Resident of Sindh and Hyderabad. His first succesful trip began in January 1831. Four dray (heavy) horses, and a carriage, had been shipped from England as a gift to Ranjit Singh.  Burnes was given the task of escorting the horses to Lahore.  He was accompanied by Ensign J.D. Leckie, an Indian surveyor, Muhoomed Ali, and an Indian doctor.  The decision was made to transport the horses up the Indus by boat, a distance of about 1,000 miles. The British had not done this route before, and the trip therefore served a double purpose, that is, providing an excuse to explore its viability.  (Burnes had instructions to survey the river, depth, breadth, navigability, as well as supplies of fuel for steam boats, and the political situation of the territories through which they passed.) The trip took  6 months.  On arrival in Lahore, the horses were marvelled at, and Burnes and Leckie were extremely well received by Ranjit Singh.

During this trip, Burnes encountered native traders who had traveled through Afghanistan to Bokhara.  Their descriptions of the city and the trip helped plant the seed for his next trip.  This he began in 1832. He left Lahore in Afghan dress and traveled by way of Peshawar (where he encountered Avitabile) and Kabul across the Hindu Kush to Balkh and from there by Bokhara, Asterabad, and Tehran to Bushire.

In 1836, Burnes was appointed commercial agent in Kabul, where he established a close personal relationship with Dost Mohammed, the Amir of Afghanistan.  With Wood, and others, he produced a number of maps of the region.

Burnes was in Kabul in December 1837 when the Russian officer, Vitkevich, arrived.  For a while he was able to maintain British influence on Dost Mohammed, but was finally undermined by threatening and unacceptable demands made on behalf of the British in a letter from Lord Auckland.  This turned Dost Mohammed to the Russians, and Burnes had to leave Kabul in April 1838.

He returned to Kabul as political resident in 1839, accompanying the Army of the Indus, led by Keane, and as assistant to Macnaghten, who accompanied the army in order to be the British envoy to the court of the yet-to-be-installed Shah Shujah.

Burnes lived in the town, rather than the British cantonment, where he was assassinated November 2nd 1841, along with his escort, his brother, and William Broadfoot. (Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4). Other travellers of the time, such as Harlan and Masson did not think well of him. 


o    Burnes, Sir Alexander (1834).  Travels into Bokhara; being the Account of a Journey from India to Cabool, Tartary, and Persia; also Narrative of a Voyage on the Indus, from the Sea to Lahore, with Presents from the King of Great Britain; performed under the Orders of the Supreme Government of India, in the Years 1831, 1832, and 1833.  (3 vols.) London, John Murray.

o    Burnes, Sir Alexander (1842).  Cabool, A Personal Narrative of a Journey to and Residence in that City, 1836, 7 and 8.  London:  John Murray.

o    Lunt, James (1969).  Bokhara Burnes.  London:  Faber & Faber.


Burrows, Brigadier-General George

British general who in 1880 engaged Ayaub Khan at Maiwand, in defense of Kandahar. He had limited field experience and made some serious errors, including underestimating the experience of the Afghan force, overestimating the British ability to handle the significantly larger Afghan force, and allowing the Afghans to hold the higher ground.   His army was nearly destroyed, and had to retreat to Kandahar, with over 1,000 casualties, where they were finally relieved by General Roberts.



Cabral, Father John (1599 - ??)

Portuguese Jesuit father.  Had been at the Tsaparang mission established by Father Antonio de Andrada.  In 1626 traveled with Father  Stephen Cacella to Utsang and its capital Shigatse, in south-east Tibet, in order to start a new mission.  Returned to India in 1628, via Nepal.  Returned to Shigatse, June 1631, after the death of Cacella, to head up the mission alone.  The mission was closed in 1632, and Cabral returned to India.



o    Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff.


Cacella, Stephen (1585 - 1630)

Portuguese Jesuit father.  Had been at the Tsaparang mission established by Father Antonio de Andrada.  In 1626 traveled with Father John Cabral  to Utsang and its capital Shigatse, in south-east Tibet, in order to start a new mission.  Returned to India in 1629.  Returned to Shigatse where he died in March 1630.


·         Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff.


Cai Yin

An official in the court of the Han emperor Mingdi.  The legend has it that Mingdi had a dream about Buddha, and as a consequence sent Cai Yin, in 68 AD, to Central Asia to learn more about Buddhism. Cai Yin returned after 3 years in India and brought back with him not only the images of Buddha and Buddhist scriptures, but also two Buddhist monks:  She-mo-teng and Chu-fa-lan. This was the first time that China had Buddhist monks and their ways of worship. [Cit. 1 ]


Caley, Dr.

First official British Agent in Ladakh.  Appointed in 1867.  Establishing the position had been suggested by Egerton. However, to keep things in perspective, it is worth noting that  Moorcroft had unofficially appointed himself in that position in 1820.


Campbell, ??

British soldier captured by Dost Mohammed at the Battle of Kandahar, against Shah Shujah.  Became head officer in the army of Dost Mohammed's second oldest son, Afzal Khan.  Converted to Islam, and changed his name, and was known as General Sher Mohammed Khan.  Was known as competent doctor, as well as soldier.


Campbell, Dr. Archibald

Appointed Superintendent of Darjeeling in 1839.  Traveling companion of the Botanist, Joseph Hooker, who made two attempts to enter Tibet in 1849.


Campbell, Sir Colin

British army officer.  One of the few to emerge with distinction from the Crimean War.  Led second relief force which finally broke the seige at Lucknow, during the Indian Mutiny.  See also James Outram, Henry Lawrence, and Henry Havelock.


Canning, Charles John (Canning, Earl) (1812-1862)

Governor General of India (1856-58).  Succeeded Lord Dalhousie.  Following the Sepoy Revolt of 1857, the British Government took over rule of India from the East India Company, and Canning was appointed the first Viceroy (1858-62).    Succeeded by Lord Elgin.


Carey, Arthur Douglas (1844-1936)

Carey joined the Bombay civil service in 1864.  He became interested in Central Asia and in 1885-87 undertook a self-financed expedition to explore Turkistan and Northern Tibet.  He took with him as a translator, surveyor and assistant the Scottish explorer and trader, Andrew Dalgleish.  They stated in Leh, and went east, then north to Khotan (where they just missed Prejevalski) and then wintered in Kurla.  The plan was to continue to Lhasa, but this was abandoned, and they returned across the Gobi desert then via Turfan, Kucha, Yarkand, and then the Karakoram pass to Leh.  The territory covered was later visited by the French explorers Bonvalot and Prince Henry d'Orleans.  Carey retired from the civil service in 1893, and subsequently lived in Switzerland.


o    Anon (1887).  Mr. A.D. Carey's Travels in Turkistan and Tibet.  Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography, New Monthly Series, 9(3), 175-176.

o    Anon (1936).  Obituary:  Arthur Douglas Carey.  The Geographical Journal, 88(2), 191-192.

o    Carey, A.D. (1887).  A Journey Round Chinese Turkistan and Along the Northern Frontier of Tibet.  Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Montly Record of Geography, New Monthly Series 9(12), 731-752.


Carpine (Carpini), Giovanni da Pianô (di Plano)(John of Pian de Carpine) (1182 - 1252)

Franciscan friar born in what is now della Magione, in Perugia.  Head of order in Koln.  At 65 years of age, he was the first western European envoy to the Mongol court in Karakorum.   He was sent by Pope Innocent IV.  He left Lyons, France at Easter, 1245, and was ccompanied by brothers Stephen of Bohemia  and Benedict of Poland.  Traveled via Kiev. It took nearly a year to cross Europe and reach Babur's camp outside of Kiev, which marked the Mongolian frontier.  Because of the efficiency of the Mongolian transportation system, it took only106 days to travel the approximately 3,000 remaining miles to Karakorum.  Carpine expected to be visiting the Great Khan Ogodei, but he had died in 1241, and his wife Toregene was acting as regent (1241-46).  Carpine arrived just as her oldest son, Guyuk, was being installed as Great Khan.  Carpine and his colleagues were cordially received, but this was largely because the Mongols believed that they were coming with a letter of submission from the Pope.  However, just the opposite was true.  The pope not only instructed them to become Christian (which a large number of them already were - just not Roman Catholic), and insisted that they submit to Rome, as God's representative on Earth, and   halt any further expansion into Europe.  Once the objective of the mission was understood, it was sent back and returned to Europe in 1247.  [Cit. 1 ]


o    Komroff, Manuel (ed.)(1928).  Contemporaries of Marco PoloNew York:  Boni & Liveright.

o    Rockhill, William Woodville. (Ed. & trans.)(1900). The Journey of William Rubruck to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1253-55, as Narrated by Himself, with Two Accounts of the Earlier Journey of John of Pian De Carpine.  London:  Hakluyt Society.


Cathcart, Lt.-Col.

British army officer.  In 1787, following trips to Tibet by Bogle and Turner, deputed by Board of Control of the East India Company to travel to Bejing to discuss increasing trade with China beyond that through Canton.  Went by sea, with plans for his assistant, Agnew, to return to India overland, via Tibet.  Mission failed due to Cathcart dying at sea en route.  Project was revived with subsequent mission by Lord Macartney.

Cavagnari, Maj. Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon (1841-1879)

Bengal Army from 1858 until his death.  Was Deputy Commissioner in Peshawar 1877-78.  In May 1879, signed Treaty of Gadamank  with Amir Yakub Khan.  By that treaty, he became British envoy, resident in Kabul in July 1879.  During an uprising, he was murdered there in Sept. 3, 1879, along with the bulk of his escort, which consisted of about 80 men.


Chamberlain, General Sir Neville Bowes (1820 -

(No relation to the later prime minister.)  Commissioned as an ensign in Bengal Native Infantry at 17.  Wounded six times in first Anglo-Afghan War, but missed final fiasco.  Served in both Anglo-Sikh wars.  Commandant of the Punjab Frontier Force in Peshawar at time of the mutiny.  In 1863 led expedition to Malka agains followers of Sayyid Ahmed Shah  (the Umbeyla Campaign).  In 1878 sent with small force as envoy to Sher Ali.  However stopped from entering Afghanistan at the Khyber pass by Afghan troops.  This "insult" to British prestige helped precipitate the second Anglo-Afghan conflict.


Chang Ch'ien

See Zhang Quian


Chapman, Dr.

Assistant to Captain Lloyd, when in 1836 Lloyd was appointed Local Agent, to assist the development of Darjeeling.


Chebu Lama

Pro-British Lama in Sikkim who opposed Namgyal, and was the only one with the power to do so.  Accompanied Hooker and Campbell on their two trips into Tibetan territory in 1849, and was arrested along with them on their return to Sikkimese territory.


Chelmsford, Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount, Baron Chelmsford of Chelmsford (1868-1933)

Viceroy of India (1916-1921).  Followed Lord Hardinge of Penshurst.  Succeeded by Lord Reading.


Cheng Ho

See Admiral Zheng He

Cherkasski, Prince Alexander Bekovitch

Officer in the Russian Life Guards regiment. Was a Muslim prince from the Caucasus who had converted to Christianity.  Sent by Peter the Great on an expedition to treat with the Khan of Khiva, on the Oxus.  The Khan had previously requested help from the Russians against invasions threatening his territory, a request that was denied.  This expedition came later, and was more interested in gold, and the potential of Khiva as a staging post for access to Central Asia.

Set off in 1717 by sea across the Caspian leading a military mission.  After considerable hardships crossing the desert en route, he and his troops arrived and appeared to be well received.  They were split into smaller groups by the Khan's representative, ostensibly in order to be more easily accommodated. However, once divided, they were massacred.  Only 40 survived.  Of them, some were sold to slavery and some allowed to return.  Only a few made it home to report the events.  There was no retribution, since Peter was preoccupied with other initiatives.


o    Michell, Robert (trans.) (1873).  A Narrative of the Russian Military Expedition to Khiva, Conducted by Prince Alexander Bekovitch Cherkasski in 1717.  XX:X

Chester, Daniel

Early British adventurer.  Along with Peter Miller, fought for the Persians as early as 1649, and took part in the seige of "Canddahore" (Kandahar). (Cited in Singer.)


Christie, Captain Charles (??- 1812)

British officer.  In 1810, along with Lt. Henry Pottinger, disguised as horse traders, set off on an expedition to explore through Baluchistan, southern Afghanistan to Herat and then on to Persia.  They started out together, then split up, each taking a different route.  Christie went north then west. They were among the first Europeans to travel in this region, and their trip was one of the first of the "Great Game."  Christie was killed on the banks of the River Aras, while serving as an advisor to Persian troops in 1812.   The Persian troops were caught off guard by a much smaller Russian force, due to Abbas Mirza, their leader, the son and heir of the Shah, not posting pickets, despite the advice of Christie.


Church, Percy W.


o    Church, Percy W. (1901).  Chinese Turkestan with Camera and Rifle.  London: Rivingtons.


Clerk, Sir G. R.

British agent to the North-West Frontier in 1841, during the invasion of Tibet by the Dogras from the state of Jummu and Kashmir, under Gulab Singh. Argued that the reason for the invasion was to control the trade in shawl wool in the Gartok area, and with Ladakh.  Also expressed concern that Gulab Singh may have been working towards a union with the Gurkhas in Nepal, which would have provided a significant threat to British interests in the region.  Advocated a consistent position of neutrality in the Tibetan-Dogra conflict.  Clerk advised J.D. Cunningham to maintain the role of observer, or at most, mediator.


Clive, Robert (Baron Clive of Plassey) (1725-1774)

Began as a writer for the East India Company in Madras.  His performance during the defence of Madras won him a commission, although he was never trained as a soldier.  In March 1757, aided Admiral Watson in taking the strategic French Fort d'Orléans, at Chandernagar, which was the beginning of the end of the French position in India.  In June of that year, defeated the Moghul Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daula, at the Battle of Plassey, and replaced him as Nawab with Mir Jafar.  Clive's military successes were more due to intrigue than ability in the field, and he personally profitted greatly financially from his actions.

Following Plassey, Bengal rapidly came effectively under British control, the first territory in India to do so on this scale.  Clive was appointed first governor, and made Baron Clive of Plassey.  After having returned to England, he returned to Bengal to serve a second term as governor.  He appointed James Rennell to survey the region.  Clive was succeeded (not directly) as governor in 1772 by Warren Hastings.  Embittered and sick, Clive committed suicide in 1774. [Cit. 1].


o    Chaudhuri, N.C. (1975).  Clive of India.  XX: XX.

o    Forrest, G.W. (1918). Life of Lord Clive.  XX: XX.

o    Spear, T.G.P. (1975).  Master of Bengal:  Clive and his India.  XX:XX.


Cobbold, Ralph, G.

Cobbold was a British hunter who traveled through Gilgit to the Kilgit pass, over the Pamirs to Kashgar.  He was the first British sport hunter who actively hunted in the Pamirs and while there photographed live Ovis poli for the first time.  He arrived in Kashgar in 1898 where he met Macartney.   He also had meetings with Petrovsky, who revealed to him that he had been receiving reports of the contents of all of Younghusband's meetings with the Chinese Amban in 1890-91.


o    Cobbold, Ralph G. (1900). Innermost Asia: Travel and Sport in the Pamirs.  London:  William Heinemann.


Colebrook, Robert Hyde

Surveyor General of Bengal 1794-1808.  In 1808 received permission from the Governor General, Baron (1st Earl of) Minto, to explore and survey the source of the Ganges.  Since illness prevented him from proceeding himself (as he had hoped), he sent a party led by (the then) Lieutenant Webb accompanied by Captain Raper, and Capt. Hyder Young Hearsey.   They reached the source of the eastern branch near Badrinath.


Conolly, Captain Arthur (1807-1842)

Bengal Army (1807-42) and explorer.  Cousin of Macnaghten.   In 1829-30, traveled overland back from Britain to India, through Russia, across the Caucasus and to Kandahar. Coined the term, "the Great Game" to describe the struggle between Russia and Britain for influence in Central Asia.  Asserted the potential for a Russian invasion of India through Afghanistan, or via Persia.  A devout Christian, who felt that Britain could push back Russian influence and put down slavery through religion.  Sent to serve in Kabul after the British "victory."   When Stoddart was imprisoned in 1839 by the Amir/Khan of Bokhara, Conolly volunteered to act as envoy and try and secure his release.  He left Kabul in Sept. 1840, attempting to convince the various khanates en route to renounce slavery.   He reached Khiva in early 1841, proceeded to Khokand, then on to Bokhara, arriving in November 1841.  There he was received by Amir Nasrullah Khan, but along with Stoddart was imprisoned and then beheaded in June 1842.  Brother of John.


Conolly, Lieut. John

Macnaghten's aide during the siege of Kabul.  Brother of Arthur.


Conway, Martin

British art historian who was an early explorer and climber. Traveled in the Alps, Greenland and South America. Led an expedition to the Baltoro region of the Karakoram in 1892.  This expedition included C.G. Bruce, Mattias Zubriggen, A.D. McCormick, Oscar Eckenstein, J.H. Roudebush, Col. Lloyd-Dickin.  Became president of the British Alpine Club in 1902.


o    Conway, Sir W. Martin, (1891). "One Thousand Miles Through the Alps." In Edward Wilson, et. al. (1897). Mountain Climbing. Charles Scribner's Sons

o    Conway, W.M. (1894).  Climbing and Exploration in the Karakoram-Himalayas.  London:  T. Fisher Unwin.


Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl, Vicount Brome, Baron Cornwallis of Eye (1738 - 1805)

Important British officer during the American Revolution, famous for the battle at Yorktown in 1781.   After the war he returned to Great Britain. Followed Hastings as Governor-General and Commander in Chief in India (1786-93). Alienated Tibet due to his negative response to their request for British support when the Gurkhas invaded Tibet from Nepal in 1788.  Cornwallis only agreed not to help the Gurkhas.  When the Gurkhas invaded Tibet a second time, in the absence of British support, the Tibetans went to the Chinese.

Confronted with defeat at the hands of the Chinese forces, the Gurkhas sought British help from Cornwallis.  This he declined.  Rather, in 1793, he sent Kirkpatrick  to Nepal as a mediator.  However, there was nothing to mediate, since the Gurkhas were defeated.  What resulted from the British action was the alienation of all three parties: Nepalese Gurkhas, the Tibetans and the Chinese.

One result was the consolidation of the Chinese suzerainty of Tibet, which was to have significant long-term consequence.  (It was not until after the Japanese defeat of the Chinese in 1895 that Tibet was in a position to exercise any attempt at independent foreign policy.)  Another was an end to the (albeit limited) trade with Tibet resulting from Turner's 1783-84 mission.  A third result was a closing of Tibet to Europeans, much as China was also closed.  These conditions were to last essentially until the Younghusband mission/invasion of 1904-5.

Cornwallis returned to England in 1793, and was succeeded by Sir John Shore.  In 1805, returned as Governor General of India, where he died the same year.  He was succeeded then by Sir George Barlow.  [Cit. 1].

Court, Claude Auguste (1793-1861)

Along with Allard, Ventura and Avitabile, was one of the four principal French officers serving Ranjit Singh, (and the most educated of them). Began his military career in Napoleonic army.  On the Bourbons resuming power, served in Persian army.  With the increase in influence of British officers in Persian service, left with Avitable and went overland to the Punjab.  His "Itinerary" of this trip was a vital document, since it contained accurate and valuable information on the geography, etc. of the route to Kabul.  This was subsequently used both by Burnes, and by the British army in the first Anglo-Afghan war.  On reaching Lahore, Court served as ordnance officer.  After the death of Ranjit Singh and the assasination of Shah Shujah (1842), he returned to France.


o    Court, C.A. (1929).  Itinerary of a Journey from Persia to Kabul Made in the Year 1826. Appendix 3, in C. Grey, (H. L. O. Garrett, ed.). European Adventurers of Northern India, 1785 to 1849. Lahore, India: Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab.

o    Grey, C. (H. L. O. Garrett, ed.) (1929). European Adventurers of Northern India, 1785 to 1849. Lahore, India: Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab.


Coryat, Thomas

Early British traveler who in 1612-1616 walked from Aleppo in north western Syria, across Persia and Afghanistan, to India.  There he visited the court of the Great Moghul, Jehangir, in Agra. Coryat died in Surat, India.  An account of his travels in Europe was published in 1611, and reprinted by James MacLehose and Sons in Glasgow in 1905.  These volumes, however, only cover his travels in Europe.  However, vol. III. of the 1776 edition of his book, listed below, contains letters sent from his travels in the east.



o    Coryat, Thomas (1776).  Coryat's Crudities reprinted from the edition of 1611. To which are now added, his letters from India, etc. and extracts relating to him, from various authors: being a more particular account of his travels (mostly on foot) in different parts of the globe, than any hitherto published. Together with his orations, character, death, etc.  3 volumes.  London: Cater.


Crawford, Charles

After1801 signed treaty between Nepal and the East India Company,. Was in charge of the military escort for  during the residency of Knox in Kathmandu. The British withdrew in 1803.  During his brief time there, he undertook some important surveys of the area and produced a large scale map of the Kathmandu valley.  Besides this map, which was drawn from data collected first hand, he also produced a smaller scale map of Nepal, based on information obtained from native travelers.  Crawford may have been the first European to suggest that the mountains in the Himalaya might be among the highest in the world (at that time, the belief was that the highest mountain in the world was Chimborazo in the Andes).  The confirmation of this began to emerge in 1808 with the expedition of Webb.


Crowley, Aleister (??-1947)

British mountaineer and frequent companion of Oscar Eckenstein, whom he accompanied on the first climbing expedition to K2 in 1902.  Led the first climbing expedition to Kanchenjunga, the third highest mountain in the world, in 1905.  Crowley was a colourful person, so to speak, who (among other things) on the K2 expedition in 1902, threatened one of his team-mates, Guy Knowles, with a revolver, and in later life moved from climbing to practicing magic and the occult.


Cubbold, Capt. Ralph

Officer in 60th Rifles.  While on "shooting party" (generally interpreted as a deniable intelligence exercise) in the Pamirs, was told by a Russian officer that the Russians intended to invade Chitral if the British left, following the siege of 1895.


Cuillier, Pierre

See Perron.


Cunningham, Sir Alexander (1814–1893)

English archaeologist and army engineer, who on retiring in 1861, was head (1861–65, 1870–85) of the archaeological survey of India.  Following the conclusion of the first Anglo-Sikh war, in July 1846, then a Captain with the Bengal engineers, was appointed (along with Mr. P.A. Vans Agnew) as joint commissioner to establish the boundary between Ladakh and Tibet.

In 1847, appointed to head up a second boundary commission.  A secondary objective was to gain intelligence on Tibetan trade.  Members of the commission included Henry Strachey and Dr. Thomas Thompson.  Again, there was no participation from the Tibet side, and no cooperation from Gulab Singh, so the boundary was determined by the British commission, alone.

In 1867, then a Major General, Cunningham was knighted.


o    Cunningham, A. (1854). Ladak, Physical, Statistical and Historical with Notices of the Surrounding Countries.  London: William Allen.


Cunningham, Lieut. Joseph Davey

Historian of the Sikhs.  In 1841, sent up the Sutlej, to Kanawar, near the Tibet border, in order to observe and report developments concerning the Sikh movement back out of Tibet, under Gulab Singh.  In that year, first suggested constructing a road along the route.  Authorization came from Dalhousie in 1850 to start construction on what came to be known as the Hindustan-Tibet road.  During the year spent in Kanawar, collected data on the size of the trade in shawl wool, which from these data, was seen to have significantly increased in the latter 1830's.


o    Cunningham, J.D. (1849).  A History of the Sikhs: From the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. London: John Murray.


Curzon (of Kedleston), George Nathaniel Curzon, Marquess, Viscount Scarsdale, Baron Ravensdale (1859-1925)

Traveled overland via St. Petersburg and the Trans Caspian Railway to Central Asia in 1888 with the purpose of gaining first-hand insights as to Russian activities and ambitions in the region.  Appointed Viceroy of India in 1899, following Lord Elgin.  Very much of the "forward" (as opposed to "masterly inactivity") school of thinking, in terms of dealing with the supposed Russian threat to Britain's interests in India.  Set up the Gilgit agency under Algernon Durand.  Established a 20,000 strong "Imperial Service" to defend the frontier.  Initiated the Younghusband mission of 1903-04.  Resigned as Viceroy in 1905.  Succeeded by Lord Minto.


o    Curzon, George Nathaniel (1892). Persia and the Persian Question. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

o    King, Peter (Ed.)(1986). (1849).  Curzon's Persia. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.



Dalgleish, Andrew (??-1888)

Scottish explorer and trader.  Based in Yarkand, for fourteen years he conducted unofficial trade between Leh and Yarkand and Kashgar under the Central Asia Trading Company.  While the 1st and 2nd Forsyth Missions (1870 & 1873, respectively) tried to set up formal trade with the area, which was then controlled by Yakub Beg, this failed and the designated trade agent, Shaw, had to withdraw, leaving Dalgleish the only Englishman "on the ground."  Between 1885-87, he and Arthur Douglas Carey carried out an exploration of northern Tibet.  Murdered in 1888 by an Afghan while ctrossing the Karakoram Pass.  His murderer was identified and pursued for two years by the British, including Bower, and eventually found in Samarkand and committed suicide before he could be brought back to India for trial.


o    Anon (1887).  Mr. A.D. Carey's Travels in Turkistan and Tibet.  Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography, New Monthly Series, 9(3), 175-176.

o    Anon (1936).  Obituary:  Arthur Douglas Carey.  The Geographical Journal, 88(2), 191-192.

o    Carey, A.D. (1887).  A Journey Round Chinese Turkistan and Along the Northern Frontier of Tibet.  Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Montly Record of Geography, New Monthly Series 9(12), 731-752.

o    Gill, Bir Good (2000).  The Venture of the Cenral Asian Trading Company in Eastern Turkistan, 1874-5.  Asian Affairs, 31(2), 181-188.


Dalhousie, James Andrew Broun Ramsay, 1st Marquess and 10th Earl of (1812-1860)

Became youngest Govenor-General of India (1847-1856). Succeeded Lord Hardinge of Lahore.  Annexed the Punjab, following the second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49).  In 1850 authorized the start of construction of the Hindustan-Tibet road, originally suggested by J.D. Cunningham in 1841.  The route was to be from the plains, to Simla, then follow the Sutlej to the Tibetan border, via Chini. Succeeded by Lord Canning.  [Cit. 1]


Davison, Lieut.

Subaltern in the Leinsters.   Met up with Younghusband in Kashgar during his stay in 1890-91.  He arrived there destitute, having set out on leave, and without mountaineering experience, to cross the Mustagh Pass in emulation of Younghusband.  Due to his being a British officer, his arrival in Kashgar was taken by Petrovsky as that of a spy. This he may have been, since many or most of the British officers traveling for shooting or sport in the region were actually working for intelligence, and took this guise so that their spying activities could be denied by the British government.  Regardless, his arrival triggered a significant cooling in the relations between Younghusband and Petrovsky.  Younghusband, believing his work done, left Kashgar in July 1891, returning back to India via the Pamirs.  He left Macartney in Kashgar as the British representative, and took Davison with him. When, on his return journey, Younghusband was being ordered out of the Pamirs by Yanov, Davison was investigating Russian activity to the west.  He was subsequently arrested by the Russians as well, and escorted to Chinese Turkistan.  He and Younghusband made a rendezvous and returned to Gilgit to report their experiences.  Died of fever on a subsequent excursion.


Deane, Col. Harold

First Commissioner of the Northwest Frontier Province, which lay between British India and Afghanistan, centred around Peshawar.  The province was carved out of the Punjab in 1901.


Deasy, Capt. H.H.P.

British officer who explored areas in Tibet and Chinese Turkistan, especially around Khotan, in the late 1800's.  In 1898, despite interventions by Macartney, experienced trouble from the Amban of Keriya, while traveling the Polo-Aksai route.


o    Deasy, Capt. H.H.P. (1901).  In Tibet and Chinese Turkestan. London:  T. Fisher Unwin.


Desideri, Ippolito (Hippolyte) (1684 - 1733)

An Italian Jesuit father.  Arrived in India from Genoa in 1713.  The following year set off with his superior, the Portuguese Father Manuel Freyre, with the purpose of reestablishing contact with any converts remaining from the mission in Tsaparang, which had been opened by fathers  Antonio de Andrada and Marques, and closed in 1635. In 1715-16 traveled from Leh to Lhasa, where he lived until 1729, when he was obliged to leave on account of the intrigues of the Capuchins, who had founded a mission which lasted to 1760.


o    Desideri, Ippolito (Filippo Filippi, Ed.)(1932). An Account of Tibet: The Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia, S.J., 1712-1727. London: George Routledge & Sons.


Dev, Harkh

Nephew of Pundit Harbalam.  Accompanied Moorcroft on his 1812 trip to Tibet.  His function was to pace the route with uniform length steps in order to enable an accurate map of the route to be created.  In so doing, he anticipated the technique later used by Montgomerie's pundits.


Dorjiev (Dorjief, Dorzhiev), Khambo Agvan (Aagvan, Aguan)  (1854-1938)

A Buryat  Buddhist monk born in Barieta, Siberia, therefore of Russian nationality.  He went to Lhasa to pursue his studies, and was eventually permitted to do so, despite being "foreign."  He became one of the teachers of the 13th Dalai Lama, as well as his political advisor.  He had the ambition to create a Tibet-Mongolian federation that would be independent of China.  In order to get their support in this, in 1898-99 and 1901, he made two trips to St. Petersburg, where he was received by senior levels of the Government.  The first trip, at the invitation of Ukhtomsky, was via India, then by sea to Beijing, and then on to St. Petersburg. There he met Nicholas II.  These trips were interpreted as Tibet treating with Russia.  That Dorjiev traveled without detection through India compounded the suspicion with which his activities were seen, and they subsequently served as a significant catalyst to Curzon's initiation of the Younghusband mission of 1903-04. [Cit. 1].  In 1909 he was instrumental in establishing the first Buddhist temple in St. Petersburg. He died in Stalin's Gulag.

There has been significant scholarly debate on what role Dorjiev was actually playing.  While Curzon is generally considered to have over reacted to Dorjiev's activities, was there some foundation to his belief that Dorjiev was a Russian agent?  Much of the literature is based on records from India and Britain.  It is only recently that the Russian archives have opened up to scholars to contribute to the debate.  But even here there is some disagreement.  Kuleshov provides a study, based on newly available Russian documents, and argues that, if anything, Dorjiev was a Tibetan agent, and that Curzon was wrong.  On the other hand, a more recent paper by Andreyev, which includes a newly discovered brief biography of Dorjiev, argues that Dorjiev was, in fact - as suggested by Curzon - acting on Russia's behalf.


o    Andreyev, Alexandre (1993). Dorjiev's secret work in Tibet, Tibetan Review, Sept.

o    Andreyev, Alexandre (2001).  An Unknown Russian Memoire by Aagvan DorjievInner Asia 3(1), 27-39.

o    Kuleshov, Nikolai S. (1996). Russia's Tibet File: The Unknown Pages in the History of Tibet's Independence. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.

o    Schimmelpennick van der Oye (1994). Tournament of Shadows: Russia's Great Game in Tibet, Tibetan Review, Jan.

o    Snelling, J. (1993). Buddhism in Russia: The Story of Agvan Dorjhiev, Lhasa's Emissary to the Tsar. Dorset:Shaftsbury.


Dorzhiev (Dorjief), Aguan

See entry for Agvan Dorjiev.


Dost Mohammed  (1793-1863)

Member of the Barakzi branch of the Durranis.  Son of Sardar Payanda. In 1816 there was a rebellion against the Afghan ruler Mahmud Shah (who had come to power in 1810, having deposed his younger brother, Shah Shujah). Following 8 years of civil strife, Dost Mohammed emerged as the strongest leader, and in 1826 became Amir.  This brought to power the Barukzais branch of the Durani (Duranni / Douranee) tribe, ending the dynasty of the Suddozai branch of the  tribe, established by Ahmed Shah.

Dost Mohammed had two external issues.  First, there was his inability to consolidate Herat into his domain, which was still under the rule of Kamran Mirza of the rival Popozai Branch of the Durranis tribe.  This was further complicated by Persian attempts to annex Herat.   Second, there was the annexation of Peshawar, which had been governed by his brother, Sultan Mohammed Khan, by the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh.  This occured in 1834, while Dost Mohammed was distracted dealing with a failed invasion of Shah Shujah, who was trying to regain the throne.

Under the leadership of his son, Akbar Khan, in 1836 Dost Mohammed's army tried to win back Peshawar.  They defeated the Sikhs, but did not follow-up, and Peshawar remained in Sikh hands.

Since the British backed Ranjit Singh's claims on Peshawar, in 1835 Dost Mohammed turned to the Russians for support.  The Russian mission led by Vitkevitch, (encountered by Rawlinson in 1837), was responding to these overtures.  It entered Kabul on Christmas Eve, 1837.  Despite  Dost Mohammed's frustration with the British, he nevertheless had a close personal relationship with Burnes, who was resident in Kabul when the Russian delegation arrived. Dost's relationship with the British and with Burnes was undermined, however, by a communication in January 1838 from Lord Auckland, demanding that he cease treating with the Russians, as well as give up his claims on Peshawar, in favour of the Sikh claims of Ranjit Singh.  This all led to the first Anglo-Afghan war (1839-42), and the British deposing Dost Mohammed and reinstating Shah Shujah (1839). [Cit.: 1].

When deposed, Dost Mohammed fled north with his son, Akbar Khan.  In 1840 he sought asylum in Bokhara, where he was briefly imprisoned.  He eluded his captors, and returned to Afghanistan, where he tried to raise an insurrection against the British.  After some success in Kohistan, he realized his position, and returned to Kabul, where he surrendered to Macnaghten.  He was then given asylum in India.  Akbar remained in Afghanistan, and as the British position deteriorated, negotiated their departure.  In the process, he personally killed Macnaghten.

Akbar was largely (mainly) responsible for reinstating Dost Mohammed as Amir in 1843, after assassination of Shah Shujah.  He held this position until his death in 1863. This was followed by five years of civil unrest, after which his chosen successor, Sher Ali, ascended to the throne.

Dost Mohammed's family is extremely complicated, yet it helps to know something about it in order to better understand  the history of his coming to power, and the struggles for power during his life and after his death.  To assist in this, I have constructed somewhat of a family tree, with links to entries to the various family members.


o    Anon. (1842). "Things of the Day, No. III: Dost Mohammed,"  Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, April 1842, Edinburgh: William Blackwood, Vol LI(CCCXVII), 506-509.

o    Lal, Mohan (1846).  Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan of Kabul.  London:  Longman.

o    Singer, André (1984). "Commander of the Faithful: The Amir Dost Mohammed." Chapter 6 in, Lords of the Khyber:  The Story of the North-West Frontier.  London:  Faber & Faber.


Dufferin, and Ava, Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of, Earl of Ava, Earl of Dufferin (1826-1902)

Governor-general of Canada (1872-1878).  Appointed British ambassador to Ottoman Turkey, 1881. Succeeded the Marquess of Ripon as Viceroy of India (1884-1888).  Annexed Burma (Myanmar) in 1886.  Succeeded by Marquess of Landsdowne.


Duncan, Jonathan

Appointed Resident of Benares. Founded Sanskrit College there in 1791. Negotiated Treaty of Commerce between the East India Company and the Government of Nepal, l March 1792 for Cornwallis.  Appears that treaty, which put a maximum duty of 2˝ percent on British goods was negotiated on an ill-founded assumption that the British would provide military support to the Gurkhas in their war with Tibet.  A consequence was that the Gurkhas felt that they had been tricked, and the Tibetans thought that the British were supporting their enemy.  Succeeded in Benares by Lumsden.


Dunmore, The Earl of


o    Dunmore, The Earl of. (1893). The Pamirs; Being a Narrative of a Year's Expedition on Horseback and On Foot Through Kashmir. 2 vols. London: John Murray.


Durand, Col. Algernon

Youngest son of Henry and brother of Mortimer.  Officer in the Intelligence Branch.  Dispatched by Curzon to reopen the Gilgit agency in 1888, where he was responsible for both military and political issues.  At end of 1891 led a force of 1,000 from Gilgit into Hunza via  Chalt to the capital, Balfit (then "Hunza") in order to depose the mir, Safdur Ali.


Durand, Lieut. (later Sir) Henry Marion

British sapper in Bengal Engineers who, during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42), served in the British "Army of the Indus" under Keane.  En-route to Kabul, to restore Shah Shujah as Amir, the army met strong resistance at the fortified town of Ghazni.  Not having siege guns, nor sufficient supplies (or time, due to the oncoming winter), to take the fort they had to set charges that would blow up one of the gates.  The task was extremely dangerous, not the least because the doors were exposed.  Nevertheless, this was undertaken by Durand, in an extreme act of bravery.  Served as private secretary to Lord Ellenborough. Father of Sir Mortimer Durand. and Col. Algernon Durand.


o    Durand, Sir Henry Marion (1879).  The First Afghan War.  London:  Longmans, Green & Co.

Durand, Sir H. Mortimer (1850-1924)

Son of Lieut. Henry Durand and older brother of Algernon.  Indian Civil Service in 1850-94.  Foreign Secretary of the Indian Government, 1885-94.  In 1893 established the so-called "Durand Line", the border dividing the frontier districts of the Punjab from Afghanistan. Minister in Tehran 1894-1900.

Dutreuil de Rhins, Jules-Léon (1846-1894)

French explorer/cartographer, killed in eastern Tibet in 1893 while traveling with Fernand Grenard (who later wrote an account of the expedition).  Among his papers was found an important sacred Buddhist  manuscript, on birch bark, dating from before or about the 2nd century AD, which is just slightly more recent than the Bower manuscript. It had been found near Khotan.



Eckenstein. Oscar (??-1921)

British scientist and mountaineer.  Was ahead of his time in terms of technique (he was the inventor of the modern crampon) as well as style.  In terms of the latter, he did not subscribe to the practice of the day of always climbing with guides.  This attitude, along with other factors, led to a strong animosity between him and the climbing establishment, especially as represented by the Alpine Club.  This was especially true once  Conway became president in 1902.  He had been part of Conway's expedition to the Karakorum in 1892, and they had had conflicts. Depending which story you believe, he left or was kicked off the expedition mid-way.  In 1902 led the first climbing expedition to K2, accompanied by his frequent climbing companion, Aleister Crowley. In India, he was detained by officials, apparently at the request of Conway, who was then president of the Alpine Club.  Crowley took over temporary leadership of the expedition, and went on to K2.  Eckenstein joined the expedition later, after obtaining his release by threatening to reveal the meddling of the Alpine Club to the press. The controversy of the expedition was not over.  Another "memorable" incident consisted of included Crowley threatening one of his team-mates, Guy Knowles, with a revolver.  Two members of the team, the Swiss, Dr. Jules Jacot Guillarmot and the Austrian Dr. V. Wesseley, succeeded in reaching 6523 meters (21,400 ft) on the north-eastern ridge.


o    Eckenstein, Oscar (1896). The Karakorams and Kashmir, an Account of a Journey. London: T. Fisher Unwin.

o    Eckenstein, Oscar & Lorria, August. (Eds.) (1889). The Alpine Portfolio. The Pennine Alps from the Simplon to the Great St. Bernard.  London, published by the editors.


Edwardes, Maj. Gen. Sir Herbert Benjamin (1819-1868)

Lieutenant of Bengal Native Infantry, seconded to the civil administration.  Worked under Henry Lawrence in the establishment of a British administrative presence at Bunnu, where at the time of the Mutiny, he was Commisioner, with John Nicholson as his Deputy.  Subsequently appointed Land Revenue Officer for the province of Multan. Commander of the troops used to crush the Sikh revolt at Multan. Became known as "The Hero of Multan."



o    Edwardes, XX (1886).  Memorials of the Life and Letters of Major General Sir Herbert Edwardes.  XX:  Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.

o    Edwardes, Maj. Herbert B. (1851).  A Year on the Punjab Frontier 1848-9.  2 vols.  London: Richard Bentley.

o    Edwardes, Major General Herbert Benjamin & Merivale, Herman (1872).  Life of Sir Henry Lawrence.  London: Smith, Elder & Co.


Egerton, P.H.

Deputy Commissioner for the Kangra District  In 1863 attempted to meet in Spiti with the Garpons of Gartok to arrange a fair to trade in shawl wool.  Failed.  Advocated establishing a British Resident in Ladakh.  This was done in 1867 with the apppointment of Dr. Cayley.



o    Egerton, P.H. (1864).  Journal of a Tour Through Spiti to the Frontier of Chinese Thibet.  London: XX.


Elgin, James Bruce, 8th Earl of, 12th Earl of Kincardine (1811-1863)

Appointed Governor of Jamaica in 1842. Governor General of British North America (1847-54).  Special commissioner to China (1857-59 & 1860-61). Followed Lord Canning as Viceroy of India (1862-1863).  Succeeded by Lord Lawrence.


Elgin, Victor Alexander Bruce, 9th Earl of (1849-1917)

Viceroy of India (1893-1899).  Followed Lord Lansdowne.  Succeeded by Lord Curzon.


Elias, Ney (1844-1897)

Explorer and  traveler in the Pamirs, Karakoram and Chinese Turkistan in the second half of the 1800's.  He was both a predecessor of and inspiration for Younghusband. Yet, little is known about him, since the bulk of his travel was undertaken as a British intelligence agent.  His work included mapping the regions of his travels, geographically, politically, linguistically and ethnically, as it was as important to understand the social/political as the physical landscape of these regions.


o    Morgan, G. (1971). Ney Elias. Explorer and envoy extraordinary in High Asia. London: George Allen & Unwin.


Ellenborough, Lord (Edward Law, Earl of Ellenborough, Viscount Southam of Southam, Baron of Ellenborough or Ellenborough) (1790-1871)

Member of Duke of Wellington's cabinet, and President of the Board of Control of India, 1828–30 and for brief periods in 1834–35 and 1841.  Hawkish with respect to Russian intent in Central Asia  and took an active role in having British officers travel and collect intelligence about Russian activities.  Replaced Auckland as Governor General of India in 1842, following the  First Afghan War. He had opposed intervention in Afghanistan, but inherited retaliatory and relief missions initiated by Auckland, namely Pollock's expedition over the Khyber to relieve the post in Jalalabad, and Nott's relief of the garrison in Kandahar.  Recalled in 1844 and was replaced as Governor General by Lord Hardinge of Lahore, his brother-in-law.


Elphinstone, General Mountstuart (1779-1859)

First cousin of WIlliam Elphinstone.  Arrived in Calcutta from UK in 1796 as member of Bengal Civil Service. In 1808 dispatched as first British emissary to the "Kingdom of Caubul" (Afghanistan).  His purpose was to build an alliance in defense against a feared invasion of India, from the west, through Persia and Afghanistan, by Napoleonic France.  This fear was propeted by French activities in Egypt, and Gardanne's activities in Persia, as well as the recently signed Peace of Tilsit.  This mission of Elphinstone was the first official diplomatic involvement of the British in the affairs of the northwest frontier.  In February 1809, accompanied by 400 men and 14 officers, met with Shah Shuja in Peshawar, the winter capital of the Afghan court to negotiate an agreement.  Proved of little value since  in 1810 Shah Shuja was driven from power by his half-brother, Shah Mahmud, before it could be ratified.  Despite some references to the contrary, Elphinstone never went to Kabul, nor further into Afghanistan than Peshawar.

Elphinstone served as Commissioner for territories annexed to Bombay 1817-19, and as Lieutenant-governor of Bombay (1819-21).  Had his advice, based on his insights gained through his mission to Afghanistan, been heeded, there is a chance that the disaster of the First Anglo-Afghan War could have been avoided.  Declined appointment as Governor General of India.


o    Elphinstone, General Mountstuart (1819). An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul. 2 vols. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown.


Elphinstone, Major-General William

First cousin of Mountstuart Elphinstone.  Replacement commander of British troops in Kabul during British occupation of the city during the first Anglo-Afghan war (1839-42).  Ineffective in this.  Described by Grey p. 229) as "feeble in body and senile in mind."  Had last seenw action at Battle of Waterloo, 1814.  No initiative.  Neither he, his second in command, Col. Shelton (who openly opposed him), nor Macnaghten, responded on hearing of the murder of Burnes - who lived in Kabul rather than within the cantonment.  This was taken as a sign of weakness, and prompted the Afghans to bolder moves.  He led the eventual disastrous retreat from Kabul, continually negotiating with Akbar Khan, despite the British being decimated en route.  He was eventually taken as a hostage, and died in captivity.


Everest, Sir George (1790-1866)

An artillery captain.  Appointed Chief Assistant to Lambton on the GTS (1818-23).  From 1820-22 was on sick leave, due to malaria, in Cape of Good Hope.  On Lambton's death assumed his role as Supervisor of the Great Trigonometric Survey (GTS) (1823-43).  At the time of his appointment, the GTS was put under the Surveyor General of India.  From 1825-30 was on leave in the UK. Appointed Surveyor General of India (1830-43), uniting the two positions for the first time.  Under his direction, the survey of the principal 1,500 mile Great Meridianal Arc ( 78°  line of Longitude), started by Lambton in 1802, was completed in 1841.  Retired in 1843.  Succeeded by Waugh.



o    Keay, John. (2000).  The Great Arc: The Dramatic Tale of How India was Mapped and Everest was Named.  New York: Harper Collins.


Eyre, Lieutenant Vincent

British officer in Kabul during lead-up to the 1st Anglo-Afghan war. Along with his wife and child, was taken prisoner by Mohammed Akbar Khan, and released to Sir Richmond Shakespear after the end of the conflict. See also the account of Lady Sale, who was also one of the prisoners released to Shakespear.




Farrukhsiyar (1683 - 1719)

Nephew of Badahur Shah.  Supported by the house of Timur and the Sayyid brothers, defeated army of  Jahander Shah at Agra, and subsequently Jahander, and his supporter Zulfiqar Khan were put to death. This was in 1713. Farrukhsiyar was then proclaimed Mughal emperor of Hindustan. He then tried to assert his independence from the Sayyid brothers, who were the real power of the state.  Consequently, he was blinded, and then strangled by them in 1719, and  Roshan Akhtar (Muhammad Shah) assumed the throne.


Fateh Khan (1778-1818)

Oldest brother of Dost Mohammed, and head of the Barakzai branch of the Durrani, following the murder of their father, Sardar Payanda, by Zaman Shah in 1800. Consequently supported Mahmud Shah, who seized the throne in 1801, and had Zaman blinded. Mahumed was deposed, and imprisoned, by his older half-brother Shah Shujah.  In 1810, Mahmud regained power, overthrowing Shujah, thereby again becoming mir of Kabul.  Fateh Khan, became Mahmud's wazir. However, in 1818, Mahmud had Fateh murdered.  Mahmud was replaced that year (1818) as Amir by Sultan Ali Shah.  Thereafter followed eight years of instability that ended with Dost Mohammed becoming Amir in 1826.


Faxian (Fa-hsien) (c. 337 - 422)

Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who traveled from central China (AD 399), across the Taklamakan desert, over the Pamir Plateau, and through India. He returned to China, by ship via Ceylon and Sumatra, reaching China in 413. [Cit. 1, 2 ]



Filippi, Filippo de

Italian geographer.  Along with the photographer Vittorio Sella, accompanied the Duke of Abruzzi on his expeditions to Mount St. Elias (1897), the Ruwenzori in Africa (1906), and K2 (1909).  He is also important for having edited, An Account of Tibet, the Jesuit priest Ippolito Desideri's account of his travels in Tibet via Delhi, Kashmir, Ladakh between 1712-1727, and Lhasa  between 1716-1721.


o    Filippi, F. de (1932).  The Italian Expedition to the Himalaya, Karakoram and Eastern Turkistan (1913-14).  London: Arnold.

o    Desideri, Ippolito (Filippo de Filippi, Ed.)(1932). An Account of Tibet: The Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia, S.J., 1712-1727. London: George Routledge & Sons.


Flint, James

First Englishman to learn Chinese.  In 1736, as a small boy, sent to Macao to lean Mandarin, under the assumption that this could be better accomplished by a child than adult.  In 1739 back in Madras and Bombay, but then sent back to China, where he lived and dressed as a native.  By 1746 he was working as a translator for British shipping, trading in Canton.  In 1755 tried to petition the emperor on behalf of the British.  For this he was imprisoned by the Chinese for 3 years.  Keay (1991).

Forsyth, Sir Douglas

In 1863, secretary to the Punjab government.  Led two British missions to Yarkand, in order to establish trade and relations with the Uighur regime in East Turkistan.   The first was in 1870, and in it he was accompanied by by Shaw, and Henderson, among others.  This first mission came to nothing, as Yacob Beg, the Uighur leader was not in Yarkand.  The second mission in 1873 was larger (350).  Established trade agreement, in which Shaw was to be trade agent. But the treaty was not ratified, and Shaw returnnded to India. and Yacob Beg was to remain in power.  On leaving Kashgar, part of the mission, led by Lieut. Gordon, did some significant surveying in the Pamir region.  The mission was largely helped by Johnson. Ultimately the mission had little effect. The treaty was not ratified, Shaw retured to India, and the only English trade was that undertaken unofficially by Andrew Dagleish. Yacob Beg was poisoned in 1876, and died in 1877.


o    Forsyth, Sir Douglas. (1887). Autobiography and Reminiscences of Sir Douglas Forsyth. Edited by his Daughter. London: Richard Bentley & Son.

Foster, George

First British official to visit Afghanistan.  Was in the Madras Civil Service of the East India Company, and travelled overland from Bengal to England, via Afghanistan in 1783.


Freyre, Father Manuel

Portuguese Jesuit father who in 1714, accompanied father Ippolito Desideri on his trip to TIbet.


·         Desideri, Ippolito (Filippo Filippi, Ed.)(1932). An Account of Tibet: The Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia, S.J., 1712-1727. London: George Routledge & Sons.



Gabet, Joseph (1808 - ??)

Lazarist priest who, along with another Lazarist, Evariste Huc, reached Lhasa in 1846 from China. After a few weeks, expelled and sent back to China.


·         Huc, Evariste-Regis, Abbé. (Translated from the French by W. Hazlitt) (1852).  Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China During the Years 1844-5-6.  Vol. I & II.  London, National Illustrated Library.


Gao Xianzhi (Kao Hsien-chih)

Chinese general who, in 747, led an army into Yasin and Gilgit, where he defeated the Tibetans  and checked the expansion of the Arabs over the passes of the Pamirs.  That battle was an important part of the lasting war between the Chinese and Tibetans for the hegemony in Central Asia. Gao Xianzhi's conquest of Kashmir in 747 was the biggest triumph achieved by the Tang in its territorial expansion to Central Asia that continued from the very beginning of the dynasty. However, the Chinese enjoyed only a few years of hegemony in Central Asia after the year of 747. Shortly after the An Lushan rebellion broke out in China's inland in 755, the Tang power was totally expelled by the Tibetans from this area. (Gan Qi) The Chinese army  was defeated by the Muslims at the Battle of Tala in 751. One interesting consequence of this contact between the Chinese and Muslims was the introduction of paper making to the west. [Cit: 1 ]


Gardanne, General

A French officer in Napoleon's army who, in 1807, began training the Shah of Persia's army along French lines.  The intention was to develop auxiliary troops who could augment the French army, should they move on from Egypt, through Persia and Afghanistan, to India.

Gardner, Alexander (1785/1801?-1877)

Claimed to be an American adventurer of Scottish descent who served as a mercenary in the forces of Dhian Singh, Ranjit Singh and Gulab Singh.  Pensioned by Kashmir Government, living in Srinigar.  His stories of his life and adventures caught the interest of British residents who came into the area, and were subsequently published by them.  (See the references by Cooper and Pearse below, for example.)

However, Grey discounts most of what has been written about Gardner and argues that the man was a liar who took credit for what others did, and was without conscience.  Among other things, Grey asserts that Gardner was Irish born, and a common deserter. It is just such controversy which makes Keay's 2017 book, with the more recent research which it contains, all the more interesting.


Gardner, Edward

Gardner was the first permanent British Resident Minister in Nepal.  He assumed the position in 1816 at the end of the Anglo-Gurkha War.  The establishment of his position was the consequence of one of the terms of the treaty following that conflict: that accredited Ministers from each shall reside at the court of the other ( the East India Company, for whom Gardner worked, and Nepal). Gardner held the position until 1829. On arrival and having presented his credentials, he built his residence just north of Kathmandu on a circa 50 acre plot of land granted by the Rajh, Girvan Yudhha


Genghis Khan  (1167–1227)

Original name was Temujin. Son of Yekusai (Yesugi), and born of peasant stock in northeastern Mongolia.  Established himself as Great Khan of Mongolia, establishing the Mongol dynasty.  Expanded empire to include northern China, Turkistan, Persia, Afghanistan, and Eastern Europe.  Beijing was captured in 1215.  Had four sons:  Jochi, Chaghatai, Ogodei and Tolui.  Grandfather of Khubilai Khan.  [Cit: 1, 2].


o    Weatherford, Jack (2004).  Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. New York:  Crown Publishers.


Gerard, Capt. Alexander

British officer.  in 1821 travelled up the Sutlej River in the hope of visiting Lake Manasarowar.  He had written ahead to Gartok requesting permission to enter Tibet, but was refused entry at the border.  He was informed that Moorcroft's travels in Ladakh had caused alarm in Lhasa and that from then on Europeans would not be welcome in Tibet.


o    Gerard, Capt. A. (1841).  Account of Koonawur in the Himalaya.  G. Lloyd, ed.  London:  James Madden & Co.


Gerard, Dr. James Gilbert

Surgeon in Bengal Army.  Explored in Himalaya.  Last minute substitute to accompany Burnes on his trip to Bokhara in 1832.


Ghulam Hyder Khan

Afghan who accompanied Moorcroft on his 1812 trip to Tibet and that of 1819 to Bokhara.


Gillespie, General Robert Rollo (1766-1814)

British officer born in County Down, Ireland. Served in Carribean, Indonesia and India.  Traveled to India overland in 1804.  Was appointed commander by Hastings at the start of the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16.  After his death in action in 1814 at Kalanga, he was succeeded in command by  Ochterlony.  [Cit: 1]



See Kalian Singh.


Godwin-Austen, Captain Henry Haversham (1834-1923)

Worked for the Survey of India. Surveyed much of the Karakoram.  In 1860 surveyed the Shigar and Saltoro valleys in the Baltistan area.


Goes, Father Benedict (1562 - 1607)

Jesuit priest.  Set out from mission at Agra, near Delhi, India, in 1602.  Was searching for reported Christian communities surviving in "Cathay".  Traveled through Kabul, Afghanistan, through Badakhshan, over the Pamir Mountains into Chinese Turkistan.  He died in China in 1604, but a report of his travels was provided by his Armenian traveling companion, who reached the Catholic mission in Beijing. His trip helped provide a catalyst for the subsequent trip of Father Antonio de Andrada.


o    Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff.


Gordon, Lieut. Col. Thomas E.

Part of Forsyth's second mission.   In 1874 returned home from Kashgar through the Pamirs, leading a small team of surveyors.  The objective was to  fill in as many blanks on the British staff map as possible, as well as to assess the feasibility of a Russian overland invasion of India.  Established that two passes from  Khokland were feasible:  Baroghit to Chitral, and Ishkamen to Gilgit.  Team included Trotter.


o    Gordon, T.E. (1876). The Roof of the World being the Narrative of a Journey over the High Plateau of Tibet to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus Sources on Pamir.  Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas.


Gough, General Sir Hugh (1779 - )

Commissioned at age 14, and early on served in South Africa and West Indies.  Became Major in 1805 and commanded his battalion when sent to Portugal in 1808.  Reactivated after retirement and sent to India in 1837. In 1840 was in China in Opium War.  Commander-in-Chief of Indian army.  Participated in First (1845-46).  and Second (1848-49) Anglo-Sikh Wars.


Graham, William Woodman

Graham was the first person that we know of to climb in the Himalayas for the purpose of pleasure.  He travelled  into the Kumaon district in 1883, including an attempt on Nanda Devi. He made a second trip that same year into Sikkim, to the area around Kangchinjanga (sic.), including an assault on Kabru, which he claims to have summitted.  Some of his claims are not taken seriously today, but nevertheless, his accounts helped seed the development of climbing in the region.


o    Graham, W.W. (1885). "Up the Himalayas."  In D. MacLeod (Ed.).  Good Words. London: Isbister and Company, 18-23, 97-105, 172-178.

o    Graham, W.W. (1887).  "Climbing in the Himalayas."  In J. Thomson, W.W. Graham & A.H. Markham, From the Equator to the Pole. London: Isbister and Company (Isbister's Home Library series). 54-131.


Grant, G.W.

Sent to Sikkim in 1826, along with Captain Lloyd, in order to settle dispute between factions.  While there, first noted the potential of Darjeeling as a resort, as well as a location to monitor activities on Tibet border.  Returned in 1829 with a surveyor, Captain Herbert, to examine these possibilities.


Grant, Capt. W.P.

A Captain in the Bengal Native Infantry.   In 1809 explored the Makran coastline to determine the feasibility of mounting an overland invasion of India via this route.  He concluded that it was feasible.  During reconnaissance, journeyed inland to eastern Persian town of Bampur, which he was to first European to visit.  His having done so resulted in Henry Pottinger being recognized as a European, thereby breaking his disguise.


Grenard, Fernand

French explorer/orientalist.  Between 1890-93, with Dutreuil de Rhins, formed a French government sponsored expedition to Chinese Turkistan and western Tibet.  Was with Dutreuil de Rhins when the latter was killed in Tibet 1893.


Gromchevsky, (Grombtchevski) Capt.

Russian officer who was active exploring on India's northwest frontier in the late 1800's.  In many ways the Russian counterpart to Younghusband, whom he met in the field in 1889.  He visited Hunza in 1888.  Doing so with an escort of 6 Cossacks, in territory which they considered falling within their sphere, caused serious concern by the British. This was especially so since he had been received by Safdur Ali, and had stated that  he would return the following year. This largely prompted Younghusband's trip to Hunza in 1889, on which they met.  Gromchevsky wanted to winter in Kashmir, but was refused permission by  the British.  He then proceeded to explore the Ladakh-Tibet border, and got caught by the winter, which caused significant hardship for him and his escort.


Grueber, Father John (1623 - 1665)

Austrian Jesuit based in China.   Active at the court of Beijing as professor of mathematics.  In 1661, along with Father Albert d'Orville, was sent to Rome on church business. Because of a sea blockade of Macau by the Dutch, they traveled overland from Beijing, through Sining, Koko Nor, Lhasa, and finally to the mission in Agra, India.  He and d'Orville may have been the first Europeans to reach Lhasa, but that distinction might go to Oderico of Prodenone.  D'Orville died in Agra, but Grueber continued on to Rome, where he gave an account of their travels. [Cit: 1]


o    Kircher, Athanasius. (1667). China Monumentis qua Sacris quŕ Profanis, nec non variis Naturae & Artis Spectaculis, Aliarumque rerum memorabilium Argumentis illustrata.  Amsterdam: J. Jansson ŕ Waesberge & E. Weyerstraet.

o    Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff.


Guillarmot, Dr. Jules Jacot

Swiss mountaineer.  Was a member of the first  K2 expedition led by Eckenstein in 1902.  Along with his Austrian team member, Dr. V. Wesseley, reached 6,523 meters (21,400 ft) on the north-eastern ridge.


Gurdon, Lieut.

British officer caught in Chitral in 1895 while visiting Nizam-uk-Mulk when the latter was murdered by his brother Amir.  His situation prompted Robertson to bring a force from Gilgit to extract him. This was all part of the lead up to the siege of Chitral.


Guthrie, George

Anglo-Indian who accompanied Moorcroft and Trebeck on their trip to Bokhara.   He died in the end of August 1825 on his return home in Balkh, North Afghanistan, where both he and Moorcroft were buried.  Burnes visited the graves on his way to Bokhara in 1832.


Guyuk (Kuyuk)(XX-1248)

Son of Ogodei and Toregene, and grandson of Genghis Khan.  Was installed as Great Khan of the Mongols in 1246, and ruled until his death in 1248.  His installation was attended by the first western European envoy to the court, Giovanni da Pianô Carpine.



Habibullah, Amir (1872-1919)

Son of Abdur Rahman.  Succeeded him as mir of Afghanistan in1901.  Visited Lord Minto in India in 1906.  Was murdered on February 19, 1919.  On his death, his younger brother, Nasrullah, declared himself mir (by Moslem law, inheritance passes to uncles, not sons). However, he never assumed power, since he did not have enough support to sustain his claim.  Instead, Habibullah's third son, Amanullah, who had been governor of Kabul at the time of his father's death, became mir.


Hamid, Abdul (Mohomed-i-Hameed / Mohamed-i-Hameed)

The first of the Pundits, trained by Montgomerie.  In 1863 traveled from Ladakh, over the Karakoram Pass to Yarkand, where he stayed for 6 months.  He accurately fixed its position, as well as surveying the surrounding area, and collecting information about Russian activities.  Returned via the Karakoram pass, but died en route.  His reports, however, were recovered by the surveyor, William Johnson, who had been sent to investigate his death.  Included in his notes was the first indication of buried cities in the Khotan region.  This report was one of the steps leading to the archaeological expeditions of Stein.


Hamilton, Alexander

Physician with the East India Company.  In 17h74 sent by Warren Hastings to accompany George Bogle on his trade mission to Tibet.


Hamilton, Lord George

Secretary of State for India.  more to come.


Hamilton, Francis Buchanan

In 1802-3 spent fourteen months in the Kathmandu Valley and a further two years in the territories by its southern border.  His book, and that  by Kirkpatrick, are the two earliest accounts of Nepal in English.


o    Hamilton, Francis Buchanan (1819).  An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, and the Territories Annexed to this Domain by the House of Ghorka. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Company.


Harbalam, Pundit

Hindu Brahmin.  Uncle of Harkh Dev.  Accompanied Moorcroft on his 1812 trip to Tibet.


Hardinge (of Lahore and Kings Newton), Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount (1785-1856)

Governor General of India (1844-48) at the time of the first Anglo-Sikh war. This resulted in Britain, through Gulab Singh, having Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh fall under its influence. Replaced Ellenborough, his brother-in-law. Appointed Cunningham and Agnew as joint commissioners to establish the boundary between Tibet and Ladakh, and requested Lhasa and Beijing (without response) for commissioners representing Tibet to be appointed.  Succeeded by Lord Dalhousie.

Hardinge succeeded the Duke of Wellington as commander in chief of the British army in 1852. Held partly responsible for the disasters suffered by the British in the Crimean War (1853–56). Promoted to field marshal in 1855.

Hardinge, (of Penshurst) Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron (1858-1944)

Grandson of Lord Hardinge of Lahore.  Appointed ambassador to Russia, 1904.  Viceroy of India (1910-1916).  Followed Lord Minto.  Succeeded by Lord Chelmsford.



Traveled in Tibet with Rawling.


Harlan, Josiah (1799-1871)

American from Pennsylvania.  Served as an assistant surgeon with the Bengal Artillery in Burma, then resigned commission.  Subsequently worked in the service of Shah Shujah, Ranjit Singh and Dost Mohammed. Harlan was reputedly the inspiration for Kipling's, The Man Who Would be King.



 Hastings, Marquess of

See Lord Moira.  Not to be confused with Warren Hastings. (See next entry, below.)


 Hastings, Warren (1732-1818)

The first Governor General of all of East India Company's establishments in India.  He was the agent and caretaker of the Marshidabad factory at the time of the 1756 capture of Fort William (Calcutta) by Siraj-ud-Daula. Appointed Governor General of Bengal in 1772, (not directly) succeeding Robert Clive's second tenure in Bengal.  In 1774, appointed Governor General of India.  In that same year sent George Bogle, accompanied by the physician Alexander Hamilton, to Tibet in order to investigate the potential for trade with the East India Company. Replaced as Governor General by Cornwallis in 1785. Was (with questionalble justification) accused of improprieties on his return to Britain.   [Cit. 1].  (Do not confuse with Lord Moira, Marquess of Hastings, who was also Governor General..)


Havelock, Brig.-Gen. Sir Henry (1795-2857)

Along with Outram, jointly led a 1,000 man force to relieve Lucknow during the  Indian Mutiny, 1857.  Relief was insufficient to break the seige.  This took a second relief force, led by Sir Colin Campbell.  Died in Lucknow in 1857.


o    Havelock, Henry (1840). Narrative of the War in Affghanistan in 1838-39. By Captain Henry Havelock, 13th Regiment LI, aide-de-camp to Major General Sir Willoughby Cotton commanding the Bengal forces in Affghanistan.   2 vols. London: Henry Colburn.


Havildar, The

See  Hyder Shah .


Hayward, George J. Whitaker (~1840-1870)

English explorer, sponsored by the RGS.  Followed Robert Shaw (by coincidence) by one day, with the intent of going to explore the Pamirs, by way of Yarkand and Kashgar.  Shaw and Hayward met en route, but Shaw wanted nothing to do with Hayward, feeling that his unexpected presence might jeopardize his expedition, which required permission.  Shaw left Leh September 21, 1868, alone.  In Kashgar was refused permission to proceed to the Pamirs, and like Shaw, was essentially under house arrest by Yakub Beg until April 1869.

Murdered at Darkot, in the Hindu Kush, in 1870.

Hearsey, Capt. Hyder Young

Illegitimate son of British officer and Indian mother.  Educated in England, then returned to India, where at 16, signed on as a mercenary serving the Nawab of Oudh (Saadat Ali Khan II ?).  He continued to live on the fringes of British India, and served as cavalry captain in the army of one of the Maratha leaders, Daulat Rao and as officer under George Thomas.  In 1808 was a member of a party led by (the then) Lieutenant Webb, including Raper, to explore and survey the source of the Ganges.  They reached the source of the eastern branch near Badrinath before being forced back by increasing Gurkha hostility.  In 1812 traveled in disguise across the Garhwal Himalaya into western Tibet with Moorcroft.  Visited Lake Manasarowar, the Rakas Tal, and Gartok.  They were the first Englishmen in the area.  On return, they were arrested and held in Kumaon, but released after a month.  Served as an irregular during the Anglo-Nepalese War, 1814-16, under Ochterlony.


Heber, Bishop

Traveled across India from Calcutta to Bombay in 1824-25.  Trip went beyond British territory, and included visit to Kumaon, where he visited Traill.


Hedin, Sven Anders (1865-1952)

to come


o    Hedin, S. (1934).  A Conquest of Tibet.  New York:  E.P. Dutton & Co.


Henderson, Dr. George

Doctor and naturalist.  One of the few who got to know Hayward.  Along with Shaw, deputed by Lord Mayo to assist in the first official mission to Eastern Turkestan, led by Forsyth, the so-called 1st Forsyth Mission.



o    Henderson, George & Hume, Allan Octavio (1873).  Lahore to Yarkand, Incidents of the Route and Natural History of the Countries Traversed by the Expedition of 1870.  London: L. Reeve & Co.

Hendriks, Father (??-1906)

A (defrocked) Dutch Roman Catholic priest resident in Kashgar in the late 1800's.  Was a friend of Macartney, and lived with him for a while.


Herbert, Captain James Dowling (1791-1835)

Officer in Bengal Infantry. Surveyor.  Assistant to J.A. Hodgson in NW Mountain Provinces.  Accompanied Lloyd and G.W. Grant to Darjeeling in 1829 to determine its suitability as resort.


Hiuen Tsiang

See Xuanzang.


Hodgson, G.H.

British Resident in Kathmandu.  In 1835, in response to a petition to the Tashi (Panchen) Lama, obtained 327 copies of Tibetan religious texts in exchange for a few yards of red broadcloth.  In 1841 reported a delegation from the deposed King of Ladakh seeking help from the Gurkhas against the Dogras, under Gulab Singh, who had taken control of the country.  His diplomacy was largely responsible for the transition of the Gurkhas to British allies.


Hodgson, Capt. John Anthony (1777-1848)

Officer in the Bengal Infantry. Worked with Webb in survey of Nepal.  Became surveyor of NW Mountain Provinces, assisted by James Herbert.  Later, surveyor general of India, 1821-23 and 1826-29. Revenue surveyor general of Bengal (1823-26).


Holdich, Col. Sir Thomas Hungerford

Surveyor.  Arrived in India in 1865 as assistant surveyor on expedition to Bhutan.  Assigned to Survey Department.  Became Surveyor General of India.  Spent 20 years on northwest frontier, where he surveyed Pamir Plateau, working with Russians.  Served in Second Afghan War.  President of the RGS 1916-18.  Harsh critic, along with Longstaff and Rawling, of Hedin's claims to having "discovered" the "Trans-Himalaya" range.


o    Holdich, T.H. (1901). The Indian Borderland. London:  Methuen and Co.

o    Holdich, T.H. (1910). The Gates of India, Being an Historical Narrative. London: Macmillan.


Hooker, Joseph Dalton (1817-1911)

Botanist.  In 1848 made trip to Sikkim.  In 1849, on a second trip, with Dr. Archibald  Campbell and the Chebu Lama, briefly entered Tibet from Sikkim.  Crossed into Tibet via the Kangralama Pass and returned via the Donkya Pass.  Then they entered Tibet as second time, into the Chumbi Valley via the Chola Pass.  There they were turned back by a Tibetan force.  While being escorted back, encountered Sikkimese force, which, once back in Sikkim, arrested all three.

Was severely reprimanded for his unauthorized attempts to enter Tibet.  Traveled


o    Hooker, Joseph Dalton (1855). Himalayan Journals-Notes of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim, and Nepal. 2 vols. London:  Murray.


Hoernle, Dr. Augustus Rudolf (1841-1918)

Anglo-German orientalist with the Asiatic Society of Bengal.  Deciphered the Bower manuscript.  Prompted by that discovery, arranged for the collection of further manuscripts by British agents in the field, not the least of whom was Macartney.  In his haste, he was shown, largely through the efforts of Stein, to have been duped by a forger, Islam Akhun.


Howard-Bury, Col.

Leader of the first British expedition to Mount Everest, the 1921 reconnaisance expedition.  Obtained permission to approach the mountain, from the north, through Tibet, from the Dalai Lama via Sir Charles Bell.


o    Howard-Bury, C.K. (1922).  Mount Everest:  The Reconnaissance, 1921.  London:  Longmans. Green and Co.


Hsuan-tsang / Hsüan-tsang

See Xuanzang.


Huc, Abbé Evariste Régis (1813 - 1860)

Lazarist priest.  Sent to China, and from 1840-44 was a resident of the newly formed Vicariate of Tartary-Mongolia, living about three hundred miles north of Beijing.  In 1844 was sent, along with another Lazarist, Joseph Gabet, to explore the the territory included in the mission.  They reached Lhasa in 1846.  After a few weeks, expelled and sent back to China.  [Cit. 1]


o    Huc, Evariste-Regis, Abbé. (Translated from the French by W. Hazlitt) (1852).  Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China During the Years 1844-5-6.  Vol. I & II.  London, National Illustrated Library.


Hügel, Baron Karl (Charles) Alexander, Freiherr von

German Scientist, who traveled extensively in the Punjab and Kashmir.  Spent time in Lahore with Ranjit Singh. His Travels in Kashmir, documents these travels, including his encounters with many of the Euopean adventurers who worked for Ranjit Singh, including Allard, Avitabile, Court, and Ventura.  For additional information, the reader is referred to the following web site:


o    Hügel, Baron Charles von (1845). Travels in Kashmir and the Panjab, Containing a Particular Account of the Government and Character of the Sikhs.  With Notes by Major T. B. Jervis.  London: Petheram.


Grandson of Genghis Khan and second son of Tolui, by Sorkhokhtani.  He and his descendents established the Ilkhanate which laid the foundations of modern Persia and Iraq.


Humayum Mirza

Part of the Popozai branch of the Durranis.  Twelfth son of Timur Shah.  Was governor of Kandahar. Proclaimed himself ruler on his father's death in 1793. In response, he was blinded and imprisoned at Kabul by his brother, Zaman Shah, who then assumed power.


Humayun (1508 - 1556)

Eldest son of Babur who he succeeded as Mughal emperor in 1530.  Defeated by Afghan/Persian leader Sher Shah in 1540, and loses the empire.  Reconquers Delhi in 1555 and regains the empire.  Dies in 1556, and is succeeded by his son, the great Akbar.


o    Eraly, Abraham (2003).  The Mughal Throne:  The Saga of India's Great Emperors.  London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.


Husain, Shah

Shah of Persia.  Surrendered to Afghans after defeat by Mahmud in 1722 near Isfahan.  Father of Shah Tahmasp.


Hyder Shah (The Havildar)

One of the pundits trained by Montgomerie. Made two trips.  The first was in 1870, north from Peshawar, over the Malakand Pass, through Dir and Chitral, to Faizabad.  The second, in 1873-75, took him north from Kabul to Faizabad, east to Ishkashim, then north through Wakhan, to north of Kila Wanj.


·         Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.



Ibrahim Khan, Muhammed

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis. Son of mir Sher Ali.  At various times served as governor of Herat, Ghazni & Kabul;  however, Trousdale suggests that he was not well regarded by his father.  Collaborated with British during occupation of Kabul at time of second Anglo-Afghan war.  Left Kabul with the British in 1880, and in 1881 was permanently exiled by mir Abdur Rahman Khan, his cousin.



The last of the rulers of Afghanistan of the Barakzai/Barukzai/Muhammadzai Branch of the Durranis family.  Held power for all of 5 days, after his younger brother, Amanullah, abdicated in January, 1929.


Izzat-Allah, Mir (??-1825)

Persian, recruited in 1812 by Moorcroft, with the help of Metcalf, to travel to Bokhara in order to reconnoiter for a trip that Moorcroft hoped to make himself.  On completion of the trip, Izzat-Allah wrote a book of his impressions and experiences and this became one of the first books on that part of the world that was read by Europeans.  In 1819, Moorcroft got approval for the trip, and Izzat-Allah accompanied him as an interpreter.  On reaching Turkistan in 1824, left the caravan to return to Delhi.  Died in Peshawar the following year.



Jacob, Brig.-Gen. John (1812-58)

Political Superintendant of Upper Sind, which he pacified.


Jacquemont, Victor

French botanist.  Despite being poor, but of good family, and dying relatively young, Jacquemont knew almost everyone there was to know in France and in India.  Visited the north west Himalaya, including a brief excursion into Tibet in 1930 (where he was turned back), and had protracted stays in Lahore, as the guest of Ranjit Singh and Kashmir, as a guest of Gulag Singh.   Jacquemont's account could just as easilly be entitled, "How to use your charm to travel like a king at other people's expense."  In many ways, this is the story of one of the most audacious characters that one could encounter.  He seemed to feel superior to everyone who was not French, and take it for granted that, with the right introductions (which he shamelessly procured), others should clearly treat him well.  In India, he played this game to perfection, starting with charming Lord William Bentick and his wife.   To be fair, it was not always clear who was exploiting who, since it is pretty clear that both Ranjit Singh and Bentick took advantage of Jacquemont in order to gain intelligence about the other, in advance of their territorial negotiations around Peshawar.


o    Jacquemont, Victor (1834). Letters from India - 1828 : A Journey in the British Dominions of India, Tibet, Lahore and Cashmere. 2 Vols. London: Edward Churton.

o    Phillips, Catherine Alison (trans. & ed.)(1936). Letters from India 1829-1832 -  Being a Selection from the Correspondence of Victor Jacquemont.  London:  Macmillan and Co., Ltd.

o    Stacton, David. (1954).  A Ride on a Tiger - The Curious Travels of Victor Jacquemont.  London: Museum Press.


Jahander (Jahandar) Shah (1664 - 1713)

Eldest son of Bahadur Shah. Succeeded him as Mughal emperor of Hindustan on his death in 1712.  At this point, the Mughal empire was in decline.  Was supported in his claim to the throne by Zulfiqar Khan, one of Aurangzib's ablest generals.  Put to death all accessible potential male claimants to the throne.  This prompted a successful counter action by Farrukhsiyarand his supporters, who claimed the throne and put Jahander to death in Delhi, having only reigned about one year.


James, Alexander, Patrick & Gerard

Three brothers who traveled extensively in the Himalaya between 1817 - 21.  Alexander and Patrick were surveyors with the Bengal Native Infantry, and James was a surgeon who surveyed a number of peaks and passes along the Tibetan frontier.


James, H.E.M.

British explorer.  Traveled with Younghusband to Manchuria and Northern Korea in 1884-5.


o    James, H. E. M. (1888). The Long White Mountain or a Journey in Manchuria with Some Account of the History, People, Administration and Religion of that Country.  London, Longmans, Green and Co.

o    Younghusband, F. (1896).  The Heart of a Continent: A Narrative of Travels in Manchuria, Across the Gobi Desert, Through the Himalayas, the Pamirs, and Chitral, 1884-1894.  London:  John Murray.


Jan, Abdullah (1862-1878)

Son of Sher Ali  and brother of Ayub Khan and Yakub Khan.


Jandin, Rani

The youngest of Ranjit Singh's 46 wives.  In the chaos following his death in 1839, in 1843 managed to have her son, the youngest of Ranjit's four acknowledged sons, Duleep Singh, declared Maharaja and her appointed Regent. This was on his 5th birthday. In order to divert dissention from the Khalsa, the commanders of which threatened to install their own leader, Rani had them do battle with the British.  This led to the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-1846), which resulted in the Treaty of Lahore.  This made the Punjab a protectorate of the British, with Duleep Singh as Maharaja.  Quarrels between Rani and the British Resident, Sir Henry Lawrence, led to Rani being banished.  An uprising in support of her led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49).


Jehan (Jahan), Shah (Khurram) (1592 - 1666)

Son of Jehangir.   In 1617 sent by father, to put down revolt in southern states.  Before acquring title, name was Khurram.  Succeeded Jehangir as Mughal emperor (1627-1658).  Reign known for cultivating the arts, including painting, literature and architecture.  Most notably, built Taj Mahal in Agra, which was a tomb for his queen, Mamtaz, who died in 1631 during childbirth.  Lost Kandahar and the northwest of India to the Persians in 1653.  On falling ill in 1658 was dethroned and imprisoned, for the last eight years of his life, by his third son Aurangzib, who succeeded him.


o    Eraly, Abraham (2003).  The Mughal Throne:  The Saga of India's Great Emperors.  London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.


Jehangir (Jahangir) (1569-1627)

Son of Akbar who he succeeded as Mughal emperor (1605-27).  This was  at the time of some of the first British contact.  In 1617 sent son Khurram to put down revolt in southern states. On his death, Jehangir was succeeded by Khurram, who assumed the title Shah Jehan,


o    Eraly, Abraham (2003).  The Mughal Throne:  The Saga of India's Great Emperors.  London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.


Jenghiz Khan

See Genghis Khan.


Jenkins, Major

Agent for the North-East Frontier during the second (1847) boundary commission led by Alexander Cunningham.  Promoted view that closer links with Tibet government would help control volatility in Bhutan and Assam.


Jenkinson, Anthonie

English merchant of the Muscovy Company, from London.  He was the first person from Britain to visit Bokhara, arriving in 1558.  Travelled to Russia, then sailed down the Volga River to the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, then overland to Bokhara. His plans were to continue on to China, but was not able to do so due to lack of caravans and local wars. He then returned the way that he came, having to rebuild his boat when he reached the Caspian Sea, since it had been looted of its fittings.


o    Morgan, E.D. & Coote, C.H. (1886). Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia by Anthony Jenkinson with ... intercourse of the English with Russia and Central Asia by way of the Caspian Sea.  2 vols. London:  Hakluyt Society.

o    Willan, T. S. (1956). The Early History of the Russia Company 1553 - 1603. Manchester: Augustus Kelly / Manchester University Press.

Jochi (1174-XX)

Eldest son of Genghis Khan. He was hampered in the struggle for succession with his brothers by doubts of his legitimacy, since he was conceived around the time that his mother, Borte Khatun, had been kidnapped.  His descendents, who came to be called the Golden Horde, ruled the slavic countries of eastern Europe that were part of the Mongol empire.


Johnson, William Henry (??-1878)

Assistant to Montgomerie in survey of Kashmir and western Himalaya. In 1855 led advance party across Pir Panjal  to survey mountains in Kashmir, and returned in 1856, during which season Montgomerie first sighted K2.  In 1865 surveyed the Ladakh-Tibet border region.  During this time he was sent to investigate the death of the first pundit, Abdul Hamid (Mohomed-i-Hameed). Discovered that he had not been murdered, and recovered his notes of his travels.  Was invited by Kahn of Khotan to visit, which he did for 2 weeks.  Returned via the Karakoram pass.  Was the first European to go through the pass for a century.  Resigned from the GTS in 1866 after being rebuked for this trip, and became governor of Ladakh. In 1873, while governor, played a very significant role in the surveying accomplishments of the 2nd Forsyth Mission made by Trotter and Gordon.  He arranged tranportation, advice on routes, and personally traveled as far as Shahidulla.

Provided two catalysts to later archeological expeditions to Khotan region by Stein.  First, he found a note among the effects of Abdul Hamid referring to buried cities in the region.  This was then confirmed by his own observations during his trip.

Elected Fellow of the RGS.  Assassinated by knife (?poison? differing reports).


o    Johnson, William H. (1868).  Report on his Journey to Ilchi, the Capital of Khotan, in Chinese Tartary, Journal of the RGS, vol. 37.

Jubbar Khan, Nawab

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis. Brother of Dost Mohammed.   Hosted Burnes and Dr. Gerard for most of their stay in Kabul in 1832, when they were en route to Bokhara.



Kamran Mirza, Prince (XX-1842)

Oldest son of Mahmud Shah.  Part of the Popozai branch of the Durranis.  Governor of Herat 1826-42, including during the 1837 Persian attack in which Eldred Pottinger played a role.  Killed by his wazir, Yar Muhammad.  Was the last of the Popozai rulers.


Karim Khan, Muhammad

Son of Dost Mohammed.  Sided with the British on the occupation of Kabul, and assisted his brother, Wali Muhammed Khan in the Afghan administration of the town.


Kaufman, Gen. Konstantin

First Russian governor-general of Turkestan and architect of Russia's conquests in Central Asia.


Kawaguchi, Ekai

He was a scholar interested in translating Buddhist texts into Japanese from Tibetan.  So, in 1897 he left Japan, and then spent a year in Darjeeling, studying Tibetan.  He then traveled through Nepal, around Mount Kailas, and on to Lhasa.  There he joined the monastery in Sera.  During his time in Tibet he assumed the identity of being Chinese.  When his true identity was discovered, he was expelled.


o    Kawaguchi, Ekai (1909). Three Years in Tibet.  Madras: Theosophical Publishing Society.


Kaye, Sir John (1814-76)

British.  Went to India as cadet in the Bengal Artilary in 1832.  Resigned commission in 1841 to become a writer.  Returned to England in 1845 where he became secretary of the Political and Secret Department of the India Office in London.  (Refs:  Meyer & Brysac).


o    Kaye, Sir John (1851). History of the War in Afghanistan. 2 vols. - revised in 3 vols. 1874.  London: Richard Bentley.

o    Kaye, Sir John (1867).  Lives of Indian Officers, Illustrative of the History of the Civil and Military Services of India.  2 vols.  London:  Strahan.


Keane, General

In the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42), led the British "Army of the Indus" to Kabul to restore Shah Shujah as Amir of Afghanistan, and enforce Auckland's Simla Manifesto.


Kelly, Col. James

In 1895 led the forces from Gilgit to Chitral to relieve the besieged Robertson.  Left March 23 and made the 200 miles, despite the high passes, winter weather, and battles en route, by April 20, beating by a week the second relief force from Peshawar, led by Sir Robert Low.


Kemp, Emily Georgiana

An English traveler in Central Asia and China in the early 1900's, remarkable in part since it was very uncommon for women to make such trips at the time.  In 1912 she crossed the Karakoram Pass from India, and traveled through Yarkand to Kashgar, where she spent 3 weeks with Macartney.


o    Kemp, E.G. (1909). The face of China. Travels in East, North, Central, and Western China, with account of the ... Schools, Universities, Mission. New York: Duffied & Company.

o    Kemp, E.G. (1910). The face of Manchuria, Korea & Russian Turkestan. London: Chatto & Windus.

o    Kemp, E. G. (1914). Wanderings in Chinese Turkestan. London: Wightman & Co.

o    Kemp, E. G. (1921). Chinese Mettle.  London: Hodder & Stoughton.


Kendall, Elizabeth

An extraorinary American woman who traveled in western China in 1911.


o    Kendall, Elizabeth (1913).  A Wayfarer in China - Impressions of a Trip Across West China and Mongolia.  Boston:  Houghton Miffin Co.


Kennedy, Captain C.P.

British officer, commanding officer in the frontier town of Sabathu.  Founder of Simla, which from 1865 until the end of the Raj was the administrative capital of British India during the summer months.  In in November 1824 was visited by Körösi, who had spent the past two years living like a monk/scholar, undertaking his studies of the Tibetan language.  In the process of determining the authenticity of Körösi’s claims, had him write a brief (8 page) chronicle of his travels - the only direct account from that exists.  Later was responsible for arranging financial support for Körösi's studies from the British.  Kennedy also played host to Jacquemont.


Kennedy, R.H.

Was a chief of Medical Staff of the Army of the Indus.  The first of the two publications below is a review of the second.


o    Anon. (1842). "Cabul and Affghanistan.Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Edinburgh: William Blackwood, Vol LI(CCCXIX), 676-690.

o    Kennedy, R.H. (1840). Narrative of the Campaign of the Army of the Indus in Sind and Kaubool. in 1838-9.  2 vols.  London: Richard Bentley.


Khan, ...

By convention, for most people whose name ends in "Khan", they are indexed by their first name.  In the case of  the."Sher Ali Khan", for example, he is found under "S", but "Mohammed Akbar Khan" would be indexed under "A".


Khubilai Khan  (1216-1294)

Second son of Tolui, the youngest of four sons of Genghis Khan.  Elected Mongol Khan in 1260, although until 1264 this was in competition with his yougest brother, Arik Boke, who had also been elected Great Khan in a separate (and more legitimate) election.  However, in the ensuing conflict, Khublai prevailed, largely because he controlled the food supply for Karakoram, and had the resources that his brother lacked for a sustained conflict. Khubilai was never accepted as Great Khan by the larger Mongol Empire;  Rather, his base of power was mainly in the eastern territories, where he gradually consolodated his power at the expense of the Sung dynasty, as much by politics as military means.  In the process he unified Manchuria and China.  Became emperor of China (1279-94) and established the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368).   In 1271 he moved his winter capital from Shangdu (Xanadu) in what is now Inner Mongolia to what is today Beijing.  His summer capital remained at Shangdu.  In 1275 he received Marco Polo on his visit to China (1275-1292), in Shangdu.  At its largest, his empire stretched from Korea to Hungary, and from Mongolia to Vietnam.  The Yuan Dynasty was characterized by religious tolerence, solid administration, and introduced paper money to China. One of the pressures on the empire was the cost of his two failed attempts to invade Japan (1274 & 1281). It went into decline on the death of Khubilai Khan in 1294, and was replaced by the Ming dynasty by 1368. [Cit: 1 ]



See :Shah Jehan.


Kinloch, Captain

In 1767 was dispatched by the East India Company  to Kathmandu to aid the Newar king against Gurkha aggression. The mission failed as it left india for Nepal during the rainy season and was hampered by malaria, and ran short of supplies.


Kinneir, Capt. John Macdonald (a.k.a. John Macdonald)

A British officer of the Madras Native Infantry, seconded to the British East India Company's political department who had served as an advisor in Persia during the Napoleonic era.  Later changed his name to the shorter, John Macdonald.  In 1813 assembled the collected intelligence collected by Pottinger and Christie, A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire.  He then made a study of the feasibility of possible routes whereby the Russians might invade India, including by sea from the Persian Gulf, or overland.  He especially concentrated on routes through Afghanistan.


o    Kinneir, John Macdonald (1813).  A Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire.  London: John Murray. (Accompanying map was issued separately.)

o    Kinneir, John Macdonald (1818).  Journey Through Asia Minor, Armenia and Koordistan in 1813-14With Remarks on the Marches of Alexander, and Retreat of the Ten Thousand.  London: John Murray.


Kirkpatrick, William (1754-1812)

British officer sent to Nepal by Lord Cornwallis in 1793 in order to try and mediate between the Chinese and the Gurkhas (who were in control of Nepal at the time).  This was in the aftermath of the Chinese intervention following the Gurkha invasion of Tibet.  Spent only 7 weeks in Nepaul.  His book, and that by Hamilton are the two earliest accounts of Nepal in English.  Became Resident in Hyderabad 1793-98.



o    Kirkpatrick, W. (1811).  An Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul being the substance of Observations made during a Mission to that Country in the year 1793.  London:  William Miller.


Klementz, Dmitri

Russian orientalist and explorer.  In 1898, led first purely archaeological expedition to Chinese Central Asia, especially in the region around Turfan. Preceded Le Coq, Stein, and Pelliot. While he was preceded by Hedin., Hedin was not primarily pursuing archaeology, nor was Hedin an archaeologist.


Knight, E.F.

Correspondent for the Times.  Accompanied Algernon Durand on his 1891 mission to Hunza.  Reported on the siege of Nilt in Nagar.


o    Knight, E.F. (1893). Where Three Empires Meet, a Narrative of Recent Travel in Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the Adjoining Countries.  Longmans, Green & Co.: London.


Knowles, Guy

British climber who was a member of the first expedition to K2 in 1902, which was led by Oscar Eckenstein.  He is distinguished as being threatened on the expedition with a revolver by his team-mate Aleister Crowley.


Knox, Captain

Member of Kirkpatrick's mission to Nepal in 1793.  Following the failure of that mission, in 1801 signed treaty between Nepal and the East India Company granting approval for a British resident in Kathmandu and trade concessions.  As a result, became the first British resident in Kathmandu.  Accompanied to Kathmandu in 1801 by Dr. Buchanan.  During Knox's brief residency, Charles Crawford was in charge of his military escort.  Withdrawn in 1803. The treaty that he had negotiated was dissolved in 1904 by Lord Wellesley in the hopes that a less formal arrangement would improve British-Nepalese relations.



Russian Consul-General in Kashgar who replaced Petrovsky in October 1904.


Komarov, General

Russian commander in charge of troops that took Pandjeh in the winter of 1884-5.  Massacred the Afghan garrison in the process, and the seizing of the fort nearly prompted war between Russia and Britain.  The action took place while the Russians had agreed to participate in the Joint Boundary Commission with Britain to determine the borders of Afghanistan.  The Russians stalled, partially in order first to secure this strategic territory which lay between Merv, which they occupied and Herat, which they did not.


Körösi (Körös / Koros), Alexander Csoma de  (1784-1842)

Hungarian philologist and a nationalist who was driven by a belief that the roots of the Hungarian language were based in Central Asia, in particular in the regions around Bokhara and Yarkand.  In order to establish  these  Asian origins of Magyar language, he  set out eastward on foot from Hungary in 1820.  He then traveled by water to the Middle East, and by land, to central Asia and India.  En route he passed through Alexandria, Beirut, Baghdad, Teheran, Merv, Bokhara, Kabul, Peshawar, Lahore, and Leh. When traveling from Kabul to India, just before the Khyber Pass, he encountered Allard and Ventura, and joined their caravan for the journey to Lahore. In Ladakh, in July 16 of 1822, he met Moorcroft, with whom he traveled for 8 months.  Moorcroft  recruited him to work on a study of the Tibetan language, work which resulted in the first usable grammar of the TIbetan language, as well as Tibetan-English dictionary.  Found some support from the British, largely as a result of the efforts of Capt. C.P. Kennedy, but also often despite the efforts of Horace Wilson to subvert it.  While working in Kanun, was visited in July 1830 by Jacquemont.  In 1831 he went to Calcutta to prepare his Tibetan grammar and dictionary for publication, which finally happened in December 1834.  With this done, he then resumed his original quest to find evidence of Magyar origins in Central Asia.  Hence, in February 1842, he undertook to travel to Lhasa via Sikkim.  En route, he contracted malaria, and died in Darjeeling in April 1842.


o    Duka, T. (1885).  The Life of Alexander Csoma de Körös.  London: Trubner & Co.

o    Fox, Edward (2001). The Hungarian Who Walked to Heaven. Alexander Csoma De Koros 1784-1842. London: Short Books.


Kozlov, Capt. P. K.

Russian orientalist. Active in archaeology along the Silk Road.  Undertook an expedition to
Tibet in 1899-1901.


Kublai Khan

See Khubilai Khan.



See Guyuk.



Lal, Mohan (1812-1877)

Son of a high-caste Kashmiri Brahmin.  First Kashmiri to speak fluent English.  Was  Burnes' translator and informant/spy.  Warned Burnes of pending attack on his house, which Burnes fatally ignored.  Very involved during negotiations during siege of British in Kabul.  Traveled to England. Author of book on travels in Punjab with Burnes.


o    Lal, Mohan (1846).  Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan of Kabul.  2 vols.  London:  Longman.

o    Lal, Mohan (1846).  Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan, & Turkistan, to Balk, Bokhara, and Herat; and a Visit to Britain and Germany.  London: Wm. H. Allen.


Lambton, William L. (ca. 1756 - 1823)

In 1800 proposed the undertaking of a trigonometric survey, initially of Madras.  The result, begun in 1802 and continued to 1883, was one of the most ambitious projects of the century.  It became officially known as the Great Trigonometric Survey (GTS) in 1818, when it extended out of Madeira to include India as a whole, along the Great Meridianol Arc, 78°  line of Longitude.  Lambton was appointed Supervisor of the GTS.  His Chief Assistant was George Everest, who became Supervisor on Lambton's death in 1823.


o    Keay, John. (2000).  The Great Arc: The Dramatic Tale of How India was Mapped and Everest was Named.  New York: Harper Collins.

Landor, Henry Savage

An English writer and traveler whose exaggerated accounts of his travels in Tibet and the surrounds were extremely popular at the time with the public.   He was a buffoon of sorts, and his claims were soundly criticized by those familiar with the area, such as Tom Longstaff.


o    Landor, A. Henry Savage (1899).  In the Forbidden Land. An Account of a Journey into Tibet Capture by the Tibetan Llamas and Soldiers, Imprisonment, Torture and Ultimate Release brought about by Dr. Wilson and the Political Peshkar Karak Sing-Pal.  2 Volumes. New York & London:  Harper Brothers.

Lansdowne, Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of (1845-1927)

Governor-general of Canada (1883-88).  Followed Lord Dufferin as Viceroy of India (1888-1894).  In 1888 brought Sikkim under British protection.  Succeeded by Lord Elgin.


Latter, Captain

Officer in the Bengal Army.  In 1815, during the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-16), was sent by Lord Moira into Sikkim with 2,000 men on a mission to convince the Raja to continue fighting the Gurkhas.  This was concurrent with Scott's attempt to establish an agent in Lhasa.  Entered Morung in the spring, and achieved an agreement, in exchange for ammunition and an understanding that Sikkimese territory seized by the Gurkhas would be restored to Sikkim.  In February 1817, after the Anglo-Nepalese War, negotiated the Treaty of Titalia between British India and Sikkim.


Lawrence, Lt. Gen. Sir George St. Patrick (1805-1884)

Older brother of Henry and John Lawrence.  Military Secretary to Macnaghten in Kabul during the 1st Anglo-Afghan war.  Along with two other British officers was present at the Dec. 23rd, 1841 meeting where Macnaghten was seized and killed by  Mohammed Akbar Khan. Was one of the people (including Lady Sale) taken prisoner by Akbar Khan, and released to Sir Richmond Shakespear after the end of the conflict.  During his captivity, he was released temporarily to go to Jalalabad to negotiate for the prisoners' release, but then returned to captivity.  His book, below, includes Dr. Bydon's own account of his account of his ride to Jellalabad, during the retreat from Kabul.



o    Lawrence, George (1874).  Reminiscences of Forty-Three Years in India. Including the Cabul disasters, captivities in Afghanistan and the Punjaub, and a narrative of the mutinies in Rajputana.  London:  John Murray.

Lawrence, Brig. Gen. Sir Henry Montgomery (1806-1857) [portrait]

Called "Lawrence of Lucknow."  Brother of John and George Lawrence.  Went to India in 1822 at age of 16.  Appointed assistant Revenue Surveyor in the North West Provinces in 1833. In 1847, directed his assistant, Harry Lumsden, to form the Corps of Guides.  Chief Commisioner in Oudh, 1856. On board of Punjab Board of Administration during the Sepoy mutiny of 1857.  Note: despite not always being taken as such, Lawrence's Adventures ..., was a work of fiction, interwoven with fact, co-authored with his wife, Honoria.  Killed at Lucknow in 1857, where he was the Resident, during Sepoy Revolt..


o    Edwardes, Major General Herbert Benjamin & Merivale, Herman (1872).  Life of Sir Henry Lawrence.  London: Smith, Elder & Co.

o    Lawrence, Henry (1846).  Adventurers of an Officer in the Panjaub. 2 vols. London: Henry Colburn.

o    Lawrence, John (1990).  Lawrence of Lucknow - A Story of Love.  London:  Hodder & Stoughton.

o    Morison, John L. (1934).  Lawrence of Lucknow, 1806-1857, being the Life of Sir Henry Lawrence retold from his private and public papersLondon:  G. Bell and Sons, Ltd.


Lawrence (of the Punjab and of Grately), John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron (1811-1879) [portrait]

Brother of Henry and George Lawrence.Traveled to India in 1830. Fluent in Hindustani and Persian. Chief Commissioner of the Punjab during the Sepoy mutiny of 1857, where he played a critical role. Despite following two Anglo-Sikh conflicts, the Punjab stayed loyal to Britiain, and a combined Sikh/Moslem force put together by Lawrence, and led by Nicholson, retook Delhi.  Followed Lord Elgin as Viceroy of India (1863-69).   He was the first and only Indian civil servant to become Viceroy. Succeeded by Lord Mayo. [Cit. 1 ]


o    Aitchison, Sir Charles (1892).  Lord Lawrence. In "Rulers of India" series.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press.

o    Smith, Ronald Bosworth (1883).  Life of Lord Lawrence. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

o    Temple, Sir Richard (1889). Lord Lawrence.  In "English Men of Action" series.  London:  Macmillan.


Leckie, Ensign J.D.

Ensign in the 22nd Bombay Infantry. Accompanied Burnes in his 1831 trip up the Indus, delivering 4 dray horses, which were a gift of the crown to Ranjit Singh.


Le Coq, Albert von (1860-1930)

A German archaeologist active in Chinese Turkistan, "in competition" with Stein and Pelliot, in 1906.


o    Le Coq, Albert von (1928). Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan. London: George Allen & Unwin.


Leech, Lieut. Robert

Officer in the Bombay Engineers.  Along with Wood, accompanied Burnes  to Kabul in 1836.


Lewis, James

Real name of Charles Masson.


Littledale, St. George R. (1851 - 1931) & Mrs. Teresa Harris (1839 - 1928)

The Littledales were amongst the most well travelled westerners in Central Asia of the latter 19th century.  Until recently, they were also amongst the least well known - perhaps largely because they spent their time travelling rather than writing or giving speeches about it.  The detailed extent and nature of their travels are brought to light for the first time in the 2008 biography by Elizabeth and Nicholas Clinch.

Among their trips was one made in 1894-95 with their nephew, from Turkistan, via Kashgar, Yarkand and Chechen, through Tibet from the north, to within 45 miles of Lhasa, the closest that any Europeans had been to the city since Manning, in 1812, and until the Younghusband expedition, in 1905.


Lloyd, Capt.

British officer sent to Sikkim in 1826, along with G.W. Grant, in order to settle dispute between Tibetan (ruling) and Lepcha (indigenous) factions.  While there, first noted the potential of Darjeeling as a resort, as well as location to monitor activities on Tibet border.   Returned in 1829 with a surveyor, Captain Herbert, to examine the posibilities.  As a result of an incursion of Lepcha refugees from Nepal into Sikkim in 1834, in 1835 the British were granted the territory around Darjeeling from the Raj, in the assumption that the British presence would reduce the tension between the two factions.  In 1836 Lloyd was appointed Local Agent to supervise the development of the station.  Assistant was Dr. Chapman.


Lockhart, Colonel

Officer in MacGregor's Intelligence Department.  Led British military survey of Hindu Kush area between 1885-86 to determine the feasibility of a Russian invasion of British India through that region.  Survey included upper Oxus, Chitral and Hunza regions.  Eventually became Commander-in-Chief of India's armed forces.


Logan, James

Endorsed by the East India Company in 1769 as their official emissary to Nepal, due to his familiarity with the border area, trade practices, and Nepali rajas.  Despite this, was a failure as an emissary with the Gurkhas, due to Prithvi Narayan's ban on foreigners, especially British, from entering Nepal.


Longstaff, Tom

British mountaineer, explorer and naturalist.  Was active in the Garhwal, around Nanda Devi, as well as the Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Spitzbergen, Canada and Greenland.  A member of the 1922 British Everest expedition.  Was also quite outspoken in countering what he felt were unjustified or fabricated claims by others, such as Sven Hedin and Henry Savage Landor.


o    Longstaff, T. (1950).  This is my Voyage.  London:  John Murray.

Low, General Sir Robert

In 1895 led the forces north from Peshawar to Chitral to relieve the besieged Robertson.  Arrived a week after Kelly, who led a second relief force from Gilgit, arriving on April 20.  Low was accompanied by Younghusband who was on leave and serving as a reporter for The Times.


Lumsden, Lieut-Gen. Sir Harry Burnett (1821-1896)

Anglo-Indian son of Col. Thomas Lumsden. Older brother of Sir Peter Lumsden.   Officer in 59th Bengal Native Infantry who served in India and Afghanistan.  Present at the forcing of the Khyber Pass in 1842, and fought in 1st and 2nd Sikh wars.   Succeeded Duncan as Resident of Benares.   Appointed assistant to  Henry Lawrence, in 1846.  In that year, on the direction of Lawrence, formed the Corps of Guides, which were based in Peshawar on the North West Frontier.   This was a force of about 300 men (Pathans, Sikhs, Gurkhas, Dogras and Turcomans), consisting of one troop of cavalry and two companies of infantry.  [Cit. 1 ]. The guides were the first to choose khaki as the colour for their uniforms, and this was adopted by the Indian Army in 1885.

In March 1857 (the then Major) Lumsden led a mission to Kandahar to negotiate an agreement with Dost Mohammed.  It included his younger brother, (then) Lieut. Peter Lumsden, Surgeon Bellew, and a small escort of Guides.  Surveyed, for the first time the Shutur Gardan and Spin Gawi Passes on the foray from Kurram to Kabul, and Ghuzni.  Was in Kandahar when the Sepoy Mutiny broke out, and played an important role  maintaining British interests and prestige in Afghanistan during that period.  Returned to India in the spring of 1858.


o    Lumsden, Sir Peter S. & Elsmie, George, R. (1899).  Lumsden of the Guides.  London:  John Murray.

o    Younghusband, G.J. (1908).  The Story of the Guides.  London: Macmillan.


Lumsden, General Sir Peter Stark  (1829-1918)

Younger brother of Sir Harry Burnett Lumsden.  As  Lieutenant of the Quartermaster-General's Department, accompanied his older brother, Harry, on mission to Kandahar in 1857-58. Appointed British commissioner on the joint Russian-Afghan-British boundary commission in 1884.  Russian counterpart was Col. Zelenoi.  Commission work ended in 1887.


Lytton, Lord Edward Robert Bulwer (1831-91)

British diplomat who had served in Washington, Florence, Paris, Athens, Madrid, Vienna, den Haag, Kopenhagen and Lisbon.  In 1876 appointed Viceroy of India, by Disraeli, to succeed Lord Northbrook, who had resigned in protest over Britain's aggressive policy towards Afghanistan.   Lytton remained in the post until 1880, when he resigned.  He pursued aggressive policy against Sher Ali and Afghanistan with respect to their relations with the Russians, which led to the Second Anglo-Afghan war.  Succeeded by Lord Ripon.



Macartney, George

Was British resident in Kashgar from 1890-1918. His official title was "Special Assistant to the Resident in Kashmir for Chinese Affairs" until 1911, when he was appointed British Consul-General. Given the growing influence of Russia in the area, and that this was the heyday of the "Great Game," his primary role in Kashgar  was to monitor the activities of the Russian Consul there, Nikolai Petrovsky., and from October 1904, his successor, Kolokoloff.  While on leave in 1915, the Consulate was covered by Sir Percy Sykes.

Macartney was brought up in Nanking, and had a British father, Sir Halliday Macartney, and Chinese mother.  He began as an interpreter for the Political Department of India. In 1890 traveled with Younghusband through Yarkand and Kashgar on an expedition to survey the Wakham Corridor in the Pamirs, which separated Chinese Turkistan from Afghanistan.  In the early years, he was there in relative isolation with few European contacts, besides Petrovsky, who was mercurial, and shunned him for years.  Beyond that, his European society consisted of the Dutch priest, Father Hendriks, who lived at his home, Chini Bagh, for a time, and a small group of Swedish missionaries.  In 1898, while on leave, he married Catherine Borland, who returned with him to his home,

While in Kashgar, he bought antique manuscripts that had been found in the desert and sent them to Calcutta.  This helped raise profile of archaeological potential along the old Silk Road, leading indirectly to expeditions of Stein and others.  Stein stayed with Macartney for a month in 1890 on his first major expedition to Khotan.


o    Macartney, Lady Catherine (1931).  An English lady in Chinese Turkestan. London:  Ernest Benn.

o    Skrine, Clarmont P. & Nightingale, Pamela. (1973). Macartney at Kashgar: New Light on British, Chinese and Russian Activities in Sinkiang, 1890-1918. London: Methuen.


Macartney, Lord (George Macartney, Earl, Viscount Macartney of Dervock) (1737-1806)

Led British mission to China in 1792-94, following the collapse of that by Cathcart.  However, due to slow communications of the time, when he arrived in China he did not know that Britain's position with respect to Tibet had deteriorated, due to India's response to calls for help in the Gurkha-Tibetan war.  The emperor did not view anyone, including the King of England as a peer.  The mission failed, in that it did not contribute to improved trade between Britain and China.  See the note on Cornwallis for more background.  Died without issue.  His property, after the death of his widow (daughter of the 3rd earl of Bute), went to his niece, whose son took the name.  Sir George Staunton was Macartney's secretary during his mission.


o    Barrow, John (1807). Some Account of the Public Life and Selection from the Unpublished Writings of the Earl of Macartney.  London: T. Cadell and W. Davies.

o    Cranmer-Byng, J.L. (Ed.)(1962).  An Embassy to China: Being the Journal Kept by Lord Macartney During His Embassy to the Empoeror Ch'ien-lung 1793-1794.  London:  Longmans.

o    Staunton, George. (1797). An historical account of the Embassy to the Emperor of China,... including the manners and customs of the inhabitants; and preceded by an account of the causes of the embassy and voyage to China. Abridged principally from the papers of Earl Macartney. London: John Stockdale.

o    Staunton Sir George (1797).  Authentic Account of an Embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China ... Together with a relation of the Voyage Undertaken on the Occasion ... to the Yellow Sea, and Gulf of Pekin ...Taken Chiefly from the papers of His Excellency The Earl of Macartney.  London W. Bulmer and Co.  2 volumes.


Macartney, Sir Halliday

Father of George Macartney.  Trained as a doctor.  Was assistant surgeon during Crimean War.  Was transferred to China with his regiment.  In 1864 married a Chinese woman.  Hence George Macartney’s mixed blood, which at the time that he lived, had impact on his career and prospects.  His fater, Sir Halliday, took a position in the Manchu court, and in 1876 returned to London as secretary to Chinese ministries.


o    Boulger, Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh (1908). The life of Sir Halliday Macartney, K.C.M.G., commander of Li Hung Chang's trained force in the Taeping rebellion, founder of the first Chinese arsenals, for thirty years councillor and secretary to the Chinese legation in London. London, New York: John Lane.


MacDonald, David

British trade agent in Gyantse, Tibet, following the Younghusband mission of 1904-5.  Protégé of Charles Bell.  Scottish father and  Sikkimese mother.  Brought up in Darjeeling.  Spoke many of the languages of the region, including Tibetan.  Accompanied the Younghusband mission in 1904-5 as assistant to Col. Waddell in the collection of Tibetan sacred and secular books.  Acted as trade agent from 1905-25, i.e., including the period 1910-12 when the Dalai Lama fled to Darjeeling. Joined Bell in Lhasa when he was invited there in 1920.


o    MacDonald, David (1932).  Twenty Years in Tibet.  London: Lipincott.


MacDonald, Brigadier-General James

The (many have said incompetent) commander of the military escort of the Younghusband mission of 1903-04.


Macdonald, Capt. John

The shortened name later adopted by Capt. John Macdonald Kinneir.


MacGregor, Col. Sir Charles Metcalfe

In 1875 reached Herat.  Planned to go to Merv, but was recalled by the government in Calcutta due to fear that his doing so would increase tensions with Russia.  Served under Roberts during the second Anglo-Afghan war, and critical of him.  In 1885 he was appointed Quartermaster General and head of the new Intelligence Department of the British Indian Army, headquartered in Simla.


o    MacGregor, Col. C.M. (1879). Narrative of a Journey through the Provinces of Khorassan and on the N.W. Frontier of Afghanistan in 1875. 2 vols. London: Wm. H. Allen & Co.

o    MacGregor, Col. C.M. (1882).  Wanderings in Balochistan. London: W.H. Allen

o    MacGregor, General Sir Charles (1884). The Defence of India. Simla: Government of India Press.

o    MacGregor, Lady (Ed.)(1888).  The Life and Opinions of Major-General Sir Charles MacGregor.  2 vols.  Edinburgh:

o    Trousdale, William (Editor)(1985). War in Afghanistan, 1879-80: The Personal Diary of Major General Sir Charles Metcalfe MacGregor.  Detroit: Wayne State University Press.


Mackenzie, Colin (1754-1821)

Engineer and surveyor.  Survey of Mysore (1799-1808).  Surveyor-general of Madras (1810-15).  First surveyor-general of India (1815-21).


Macnaghten, Sir William (1793-1841)

Cousin of Capt. Conolly. Against the advice of Burnes, persuaded Lord Auckland to depose Dost Mohammed, as Amir of Afghanistan, and replace him with Shah Shujah.  This came about through the Simla Manifesto of 1838.  Macnaghten then accompanied the Army of the Indus, led by Keane, to become Britain's political officer to the court of the soon-to-be reinstated Shah Shujah, in Kabul.  His assistant in Kabul was Burnes.

He, along with Elphinstone ignored the signs of growing unrest, and made no response on hearing of the murder of Burnes in the city.  This prompted the Afghans to be far more bold in their aggression against the British.  He and Elphinstone appear to have fought more with each other than with the Afghans.  The result was overall inaction.  Elphinstone controlled military decision, and did not take advantage of opportunities when they were there.  Macnaghten, as political officer, did not accept political option when offered, thinking that he could negotiate a better solution.  In an attempt to divide the Afghan leaders, he was caught double dealing by Akbar Khan, which cost him his life.

Mahmud (XX - 1725)

Eldest son of Mir Wais.  Succeeded his father (indirectly) as ruler of Kandahar province.  Invaded Persia in 1720.  In 1722, after defeating the Persians near Isfahan, Shah Husain surrendered to him. On his death, Mahmud was succeeded by his son, Ashraf Khan.


Mahomed, Ata (The Mullah)

A Pathan, one of the Pundits recruited by Montgomerie, known as "The Mullah" ("learned man").  Accompanied the "The Havildar" on his last trip in 1873, where he branched off on a side survey with one servant.  He went north from Peshawar, through Jalalabad, then north through Dir and Chitral, crossing the Hindu Kush to Wakhan.  From there they continued west to Yarkand, south to Leh, and then west back to Peshawar.

His second trip was in 1875-6, again from Peshawar.  This time north over the Malakand  Pass to Gilgit, then north west to Yasin and Mastuj, and then back to Peshawar.  His final trip was in 1878, again from Peshawar, over the Malakand  Pass, but turning northwest sooner than on the previous trip, and then returning to Peshawar.


o    Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.


Mahmud Shah (??-1829)

Member of the Popozai branch of the Durranis.  Grandson of Ahmed Shah Abdali, son of Timur Shah, and half-brother to Zaman Shah, who was Amir of Afghanistan (1793-1801). After Zaman had  their father, Sardar Payanda killed in 1800, Dost Mohammed and his brothers supported Mahmud, who seized the throne in 1801 and had Zaman blinded in 1803. However, in that same year Mahmud was subsequently deposed and imprisoned by his older half-brother, Shah Shujah.  In 1809, Mahmud regained power, overthrowing Shujah, thereby again becoming Amir of Kabul. Dost Mohammed's older brother Fateh Khan, the leader of the Barakzai family, became Mahmud's wazir. However, in 1818, Mahmud had Fateh Khan, killed.  Mahmud was replaced that year (1818) as Amir by Sultan Ali Shah, and thereafter followed eight years of instability that ended with Dost Mohammed becoming Amir in 1826.


Malcolm, Captain Sir John

English officer in the Coast (Madras) Army, sent by Lord Wellesley in 1800 on diplomatic mission to Shah of Persia.  Fluent in Persian.  Traveled by sea. Accompanied by retinue of 500, including 100 Indian military and 300 servants etc.  Secured a political and commercial treaty.  The political treaty promised British support should Persia be attacked by France or Afghanistan (Britain was worried about Napoleon's intentions with respect to India).  There was also discussion about Persia pursuing control of Herat and Kandahar, which would create a diversion, distracting Shah Zaman from incursions into India. The treaties were never ratified, which was lost on the Shah.   When Russia moved on Persian territory in 1801, the Shah requested Britain's help, believing that he had an agreement for protection if invaded. However, Russia was not listed on the treaty, and the British were now allies against Napoleon.  Hence the Persians felt betrayed, and in 1804 made a treaty with the French.

Malcom became Governor of Bombay, 1826-30.  In 1829 supporter of Burnes' planned trip to Rajputana, and his first realized trip1831, to deliver four dray horses as a gift to Ranjit Singh.


o    Malcolm, Sir John (1815).  History of Persia from the Most Early Period to the Present Day.  2 vols. London: J Murray.


Manning, Thomas

English eccentric traveler and Sinophile.  In 1811 became the first Englishman to reach Lhasa.  However, he did not consider this important, since his real goal was to get to China via the overland route, which he failed to do.



o    Markham, Clements, R. (1876). Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa. London: Trübner & Co.

o    Woodcock, G. (1971).  Into Tibet:  The Early British Explorers.  London:  Faber & Faber.


Manucci, Niccolao

Italian who ended up in India in the 1650's as an artillaryman in the service of Prince Dara Shikoh, eldest son of the Mughal emperer.

Refs: (Note, all of the following are variations on the same book, just with varying degrees of abridgement from the original 4 vol. set.)

o    Manucci, Niccolao (1906-8). Storia Do Mogor or Mogul India 1653-1708Translated, with Introduction and Notes by William Irvine, Bengal Civil Service (Retired) - Memember of the Royal Asiatic Society.  4 volumes.John Murray. London.

o    Manucci, Niccolao (William Irvine, Trans.)(1913). Pepys of Mogul India (1653-1708): Being an abridged edition of the "Storia do Mogor" of Niccolao Manucci.  London: John Murray,

o    Manucci, Niccolao (Michael Edwardes Ed.)(1957).Memoirs of the Mogul Court.  London: Folio Society.


Markham, Sir Clements

Markham was head of the geographical department of the India Office 1867-88 and President of the R.G.S. 1893-1905.


o    Markham, Clements, R. (1871).  A Memoir of the Indian Surveys. London: Allen, for H.M. Sec'y. of State for India in Council.

o    Markham, Clements, R. (1876). Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa.  London: Trübner & Co.


Marques, Manuel

A Jesuit lay brother who accompanied Father Antonio de Andrada. on his trip from the mission in Agra to Tibet in 1624.

Mason, Kenneth

Mason took part in the mapping of and field work in the Himalaya, and throughout his life he passionately followed &  researched all exploration.  Was a professor of geography at Oxford.


o    Mason, K. (1955).  Abode of Snow:  A History of Himalayan Exploration and Mountaineering. New York:  Dutton.


Masson, Charles (1800-1853)

Masson was an Englishman, whose real name was James Lewis.  He appeared well educated, but was a private up in the army of the East India Company.  With Potter, in 1826 he deserted, and set off wandering in the Punjab, Balochistan and Afghanistan.   He adopted the name Charles Masson, and passed himself off as an American adventurer.  He lived and dressed as an Afghan, and wrote extensively about the country and its history.  In 1833 he settled in Kabul.  His writing attracted the attention of General Wade, on whose instigation he was officially pardoned, and henceforth employed as a "news writer" (i.e, British agent, or spy) in Kabul. His advice was often in disagreement with that of Burnes, and there seems to have been no love lost between the two. His account of the turbulent politics leading up to the First Afghan War is one of the best to have been published. The writing of these was completed while he was staying as a guest of his friend and supporter, Pottinger while the latter was Commissioner of Sindh.  [Cit. 1]


Mayo, Lord Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of, Vicount Mayo of Monycrower, Baron Naas of Naas (1822-1872)

Succeeded Lord Lawrence as Viceroy of India in 1869, and held that position until he was assassinated in 1872.  Received   Sher Ali Khan  to negotiate closer alliance with Afghanistan, and thereby reduce the influence of Russia. Deputed Forsyth, assisted by Shaw and Henderson, to lead the first offical mission to Eastern Turkestan.  Succeeded by Lord Northbrook.


McMahon, Sir Henry

Convened, and was representative of British India at the conference that gave rise to the Simla Convention of 1914.  The controversial boundary, The McMahon Line, separating Indan and Chinese controlled territory between Bhutan and the Brahmaputra River, is named after him.


o    Lamb, Alistair (1966).  The MacMahon Line.  A Study in the Relations between India, China and Tibet 1904-1914, 2 vols.  London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Mehdi, Aga

See Mehki Rafailov.

Mejid, Abdul

Sent from Peshawar to Kokand in 1860, by Canning, to carry letters and gifts.  Underlying motive was to collect information on Russian influence and presence in the region.  Traveled by Kabul and through the Pamirs, returning in 1861.


Metcalfe, Sir Charles Theophilus (1785-1846)

British colonial administrator.   Envoy to Lahore.  Negotiated the 1809 Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh, securing Sikh support should Napoleon's French troops threaten British India.  In the exchange, the British were granted territories south of the Sutlej River, and the Sikhs the territories to the north.  Pressure for the Sikhs to sign this treaty was provided by a British military force led by Col. David Ochterlony.

Was secretary to Lord Wellsesley, who was Governor General from 1798-1805.  Resident of Delhi, 1811-20.  Head of Political and Secrets Dept.   In 1819 authorized and supported Moorcroft's trip to Bokhara in order to collect intelligence, under the guise of purchasing horses.  Resident of Hyderabad, 1820-27.   Member of Governor General's Council, 1827-35.  Acting Governor General of India (1835-36), following Lord Bentick.  Succeeded by Lord Auckland.  Governor of Jamaica (1839-42).  Appointed Governor General of Canada 1843-45.  Retired 1845.


o    Thompson, Edward (1937).  The Life of Charles, Lord Medcalfe.  London: Faber and Faber Ltd.



See Hari Ram.


Miles, Captain

British officer who temporally assumed Macartney's position in Kashgar while the latter was on his third leave in Britain (June 1902 - April 1904).


Miller, Peter

Early British adventurer.  Along with Daniel Chester, fought for the Persians as early as 1649, and took part in the seige of "Canddahore" (Kandahar).  (Cited in Singer.)


Minaev, I.P.

Russian Tibetologist at end of the 19th century.


Minto, Gilbert Elliot, Baron (1st Earl of) (1751-1814)

Appointed Governor of Corsica in 1797.  Envoy to Vienna 1799-1801. Governor General of Bengal, 1807-13, following Sir George Barlow.  Succeeded by Lord Moira.  [Cit.  1 ].


Minto, Gilbert Elliot (4th Earl of) (1845-1914)

Veteran of the second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880), and Egyptian campaign of 1882.  Governor General of Canada, 1898-1904.  Succeeded Lord Curzon as Viceroy of India, 1905-1910.  Succeeded by Lord Hardinge of Penshurst.


Mirza, The

See:  Mirza Shuja.


Mohammed ...

By convention, for most people who are referred to as Mohammed, the name "Mohammed" is not used in indexing.  Hence, for example, "Mohammed Akbar Khan," would be indexed under "A".  Also, note that there are a large number of ways to spell this name.  I have tried to be consistent with common usage, rather than use the same spelling all of the time.  Hence, I distinguish among Mohammed, Mohomed, Mahmud, ....


Mohammed Khan Telai, Sultan (1795-1861)

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis. Brother of Dost Mohammed.  Governor of Kabul 1823-1826, of Peshawar 1831-1833, and of Kohat 1828-1834.  Hosted Burnes in Peshawar 1832, on his way to Bokhara.  Intrigued with Ranjit Singh, at expense of Dost Mohammed, and in 1834 threw lot in with the Sikhs.  The Sikhs subsequently drove out Mohammed Khan, who sought protection from Dost Mohammed.  Peshawar remained under Sikh control until 1847, when it was ceded to the British after the Sikh wars.



See  Abdul Hamid.


Moira, Fancis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, 2nd Earl of (1754-1826)

(Not to be confused with Warren Hastings, who was also governor-general.)  Govenor-General of Bengal 1813-1823, succeeding the Lord (1st Earl of) Minto. Brought British India into the Anglo-Gurkha war of 1814. Took steps to mitigate the risk of damaging Anglo-Chinese relations, due to this conflict.  (See entries for Dr. Buchanan and J. Adam.)   These including sending Captain Latter with a military force to Sikkim, as well as sending David Scott to attempt to establish diplomatic contact with the Chinese in Lhasa through Sikkim or Bhutan.  His fears about damaging Anglo-Chinese relations continued after the signing of the Treaty of Segauli (March, 1816).  First, there was the worry that the Chinese would feel that the Nepalese, as Chinese dependants, did not have the right to conduct foreign poicy on their own.  Second, he was worried about the Chinese reaction to the terms of the treaty, which ceded the territories of Kumaon and Garhwal to the British.  These territories were in western Nepal, and gave British India their first common border with Tibet, which the Chinese considered their territory.  Succeeded by Lord Amherst. [Cit.  1].



Mongol "Great khan" from 1251-59.  Was the grandson of Genghis Khan by his youngest son, Tolui, and the oldest brother of Khubilai Khan.  He was the last of the Great Khans to be acknowledged and accepted by the whole Mongolian empire.  The empire reached its greatest extent under his rule.


Montecorvino, John of (1246 - 1328)

Franciscan friar from Salerno. In 1289 sent by Nicholas IV to Mongol capital, which since 1267 had been in Bejing.  Traveled overland to Persia, then by sea to India in 1291, where he stayed for 13 months.  He traveled by sea from Meliapur to China, arriving in 1294.  In 1307 Clement V named him as the first archbishop of Beijing.  Clement sent seven friars of the rank of bishop, who were to consecrate him in this position.  Only three of them reached China, which they did in 1838: Andrew of Perugia, Gerard, and Peregrinus reached China, The Christian missions disappeared in the turmoil which followed the fall of the Mongols and the accession of the Ming dynasty (1368). [Cit. 1, 2 ]


Montgomerie, Lieut. Thomas George (1830-??)

Lieutenant of the Royal Engineers. Joined the GTS in 1852.  From 1855-1858 undertook a survey of Kashmir.  In 1856 was first to survey K2.  From 1858-1861 he was active surveying in Baltistan ("Little Tibet").  Was an unofficial political adviser to Gulab Singh, the then Maharaja of Kashmir. After Gulab Singh's death in 1857, continued his survey work as he carried the same influence with Rambir Singh, his successor.

In 1861 argued that the best route to Tibet ran through Assam or Darjeeling, rather than from the west, which was the route followed by the Hindustan-Tibet Road, first suggested by J.D. Cunningham, and started in 1850 under the authorization of Lord Dalhousie.

In 1862, Montgomerie developed a plan to train natives to undertake surveys and intelligence collection in Tibet and other territories closed, or difficult to travel in, for westerners. This plan gave rise to what came to be known as the Pundits.  The precedent and partial inspiration was Abdul Mejid, and the Jesuit trained Chinese who, much earlier, surveyed much of western China.  The first pundit, in 1863, was Abdul Hamid (Mohomed-i-Hameed) who traveled to Yarkand. In 1868, he sent out Mirza Shuja, ("The Mirza"), across the Hindu Kush to Kashgar, via Afghanistan and the Pamirs.  The next key Pundit was Hyder Shah, ("The Havildar") who made trips in 1870 and 1873-5, from Peshawar, north to Wakhan.

In 1873, Montgomerie went to England for health reasons, and Captain Trotter was placed in charge of the Pundits.

In 1865, Montgomerie was awarded the Founders Medal from the Royal Geographical Society.

Montgomery, Sir Robert

Lieutenant-governor of the Punjab.  Replaced in 1865.


Moorcroft, William (1767 - 1825)

Moorcroft was the first Englishman to be qualified as a veterinarian.  (He studied in France.) Came to India in 1808 as Superintendent of East India Company's horses.  He traveled widely, ostensibly in search of breading stock, but this this was clearly more of a pretext than fact.  He undertook two main journeys.

The first was into western Tibet in 1812, with a caravan of 54, including H. Y. Hearsey, Pundit Harbalam, Harkh Dev, and Ghulam Hyder Khan.  They traveled disguised as pilgrim/traders across the Garhwal Himalaya to Lake Manasarowar, Mount Kailas region, the Rakas Tal, and Gartok.  Moorcroft and Hearsey were the first Englishmen in the area.  They were detained at Dava Dzong near the west of Sutlej River, and were helped to escape to India by the Bhotia Tribe.  During this trip he found evidence of Russian activity in the region, which alerted him to potential Russian designs on the territory, and potentially India.  His warnings to his superiors were ignored.

Moorcroft's long-standing dream was to go to Bokhara, where he believed there were the best horses in Central Asia.  In anticipation, with the help of Metcalf (who was then Resident in Delhi), in 1812 he sent a Persian, Mir Izzat-Allah to travel to the city in order to reconnoiter for the trip that he hoped to make himself in the future.  In 1819 he finally got permission and support for this, his second (and last) major trip. Permission came from his friend Metcalf, who was then Head of Intelligence, and his approval was in order to collect intelligence, rather than to purchase horses.

The most direct route was through Afghanistan, however that country was in a state of civil war. Consequently, he decided to go via the northern route through Ladakh and the Karakoram Pass.  He left British territory in 1820, for a trip that would last until 1825. The caravan included 300 people, including a military escort of 12 Gurkhas,  George Trebeck, an Anglo Indian, George Guthrie, Mir Izzat-Allah, who was coming as an interpreter, and Ghulam Hyder Khan, who had been on Moorcroft’s 1812 trip to Tibet.

While waiting for permission from Kashgar to cross into Chinese Turkistan, he traveled and explored widely from his base in Leh; the greater part of Ladakh, the Karakoram Pass, the head-waters of the Yarkand River, the Western Himalaya, the Karakoram and the NW Frontier. While in Leh, without authorization, he negotiated a trade treaty with Ladakh.  This was rejected by his superiors, and caused problems with their ally, Ranjit Singh, who felt that Ladakh fell under his domain.

After deciding that permission would never come to travel via Yarkand/Kashgar, in 1824 he decided to go via Afghanistan, regardless of the civil conflict there.  Traveled through Kashmir and Punjab, over the Khyber Pass, across the Oxus, and got to Bokhara.  He died at the end of August 1825 on his return home in Balkh, North Afghanistan, where both he and Guthrie were buried.  Burnes visited the graves on his way to Bokhara in 1832.


o    Alder, Garry (1985).  Beyond Bokhara:  The Life of William Moorcroft, Asian Explorer and Pioneer Veterinary Surgeon 1767-1825. London: Century Publishing.

o    Moorcroft, William (1816). 'A Journey to Lake Mansarovara (in Undes, a Province of Tibet)'.  Asiatic Researches 12, 375.

o    Moorcroft, William, & Trebeck George. (1841). Travels in the Himalayan Provinces; of Hindustan and the Punjab, in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz and Bokhara, from 1819 to 1825. (2 Vols.) London: John Murray.

o    Wilson, H.H. (1841). The Travels of William Moorcroft and George Trebeck.  London


Morshead, Henry (XX - 1932)

Morshead was an officer in the Survey of India.  In 1913 he accompanied Bailey on a trip from Assam to Tibet to explore and map the lower Tsangpo River, and on the return to India, map regions along the Tibet / Burma / Assam border.  (This survey was timely with respect to the conference led by McMahon, and which led to the Simla Convention.)  He went to Kamet with Kellas in 1920 and was the head surveyor on the 1921 Everest expedition.  He was also a member of the 1922 expedition, on which he we badly frostbitten above the North Col. He was later posted to Burma, where he was murdered in 1931


o    Morshead, Ian (1982). The Life & Murder of Henry Morshead: a true story from the days of the Raj. Cambridge. The Oleander Press Ltd.

Muhammad Shah (Roshan Akhtar) (1702 - 1748)

Grandson of Badahur Shah.  On the murder of Farruksiyar in 1719, succeeded him as Mughal emperor of India, with the support of the Sayyid brothers.  On assuming the throne, he assumed the name Muhammad Shah, in the stead of Roshan Akhtar.  While initially a puppet of the Sayyids, during his reign their influence was ended. At this point, the Mughal empire had been in serious decline since the rule of Aurangzib.  During his reign, Saddat Khan the governor of Oudh, and Alivardi Khan, the governor of Bengal set up independent kingdoms.  It was also during Muhammad Shah's reign, in 1739, that Nadir Shah attacked Delhi and defeated the imperial army near Lahore.  As a consequence, all of the provinces west of the Indus were ceded to Nadir Shah.  This was the effective beginning of a distinct region that could be considered Afghanistan.  By this same treaty, the Persians acquired both the peacock throne and the Koh-I-nur diamond.  This success further hastened the disintegration of the Mughal empire, by encouraging yet more incursions from the south from the Marathas.

Succeeded on his death in 1748 by his son, Ahmad Shah.

Mullah, The

See Ata Mahomed.


Mumm, A.L.


o    Mumm, Arnold Lewis (1909). Five Months in the  Himalaya: A Record of Mountain Travel in Garhwal & Kashmir. London  Edward Arnold.


Mummery, Albert (1855-1895)

Despite the combined disabilities of a spinal birth defect and being quite short-sighted, he was perhaps the best climber of his era.  He established a new standard of climbing and put up a number of new routes in the Alps.  He was one of the first to break from the tradition of climbing in the Alps with a guide.  In 1895 made an attempt on Nanga Parbat with Geoffery Hastings, J. Norman Collie.  Charles Bruce also joined the expedition for a while, along with two Gurkhas, Ragobir Singh and Goman Singh.  Having finally given up on the approach to the mountain from the Diamirai glacier, the team decided to try another approach from the Rakiot nullah.  Mummery and the two Gurkhas took a different route than the others, going up the Diama glacier, with the intent of crossing over the Diama pass.  They were never seen again.


Muraviev (Murav'yov), Capt. Nikolai (1795-??)

A Russian officer who in 1819, at the age of 24, went on a mission from Tiflis, Georgia to the Khan of Khiva.  He crossed from Baku to the east coast of the Caspian sea by Russian naval ship, then joined a caravan to cross the Karakum desert to Khiva.  He was fluent in Tartar language, and traveled in disguise.  His nationality was revealed on arrival and he was held for 7 weeks in Khiva before being received by the Khan.  Having agreed to treat with the Russians about trade, he returned after 2 months in Khiva to report on the state of what he estimated to be 3,000 Russian slaves in the khanate.  While the military action that he advocated to free the Russian slaves did not happen, his report provided justification for future Russian expansion in the area and helped trigger the end of the independent khanates in Turkistan.  Muraviev ended his career as Commander-in-Chief of the Caucasus.


o    Hopkirk, Peter (1990).  The Great Game:  On Secret Service in High Asia. London:  John Murray.

o    Muraviev, Nikolai (1871).   Muraviev's Journey to Khiva Through the Turkoman Country 1819-20, Calcutta: Foreign Department Press. There are only two known copies of this first edition in English libraries.  The first complete English edition is: (1977). Journey to Khiva Through the Turkoman Country.  London:  Oguz Press.



Nadir (Nader) Shah Quli (1688–1747)

From Kukhlu tribe of Ashraf Turks.  At age 18, along with his mother, was captured by Usbeg raiders, and sold as slave in Khiva.  Through merit became a general of Shah Tahmasp, in which capacity he pushed the Afghans out of Persia.  It was during the retreat after a defeat by Nadir Shah in 1730 that Ashraf Khan was killed. Nadir then focused on pushing back the Turks, who had again invaded Persia.  At this point, Shah Tahmasp took control of the Persian army and was soundly beaten.  As a consequence, he was deposed by Nadir, who placed Tahmasp's infant son on the throne as a puppet.  When the child died in 1736, Nadir made himself  Shah of Iran.  He went on to greatly expand the Persian empire, including control over what was later to be Afghanistan.  He conquered Kandahar (1737-38), then proceeded to take Kabul and with Ahmed Abdali, much of north west India  During the Mugal reign of Muhammad Shah, Nadir occupied the their capital of Delhi in 1739, and decamped with the "Peacock Throne" and the Koh-I-nur diamond to Persia.  In 1741 he invaded Bokhara and Khiva.  Nadir Shah was murdered by the captain of his guard in 1747.  [Cit. 1]  It was from the aftermath of his death in 1747 that the first seeds of Afghanistan emerged as a distinct country, or entity, in particular, with the emergence of Ahmed Khan, who had been one of his generals, and who had posession of Nadir's treasury at the time of his death.


Namgyal, Tokhang Donyer (?? - 1888)

Became Chief Minister, or Dewan, of Sikkim on the death of his predecessor, Ilam Singh, in 1847.  Permanently exiled to Tibet in 1861.


Napier, Sir Charles (1782-1853)

Served in Napoleonic wars. Went to India in 1841.  In 1843 led the conquest of Sind, which he governed until 1847.



o Holmes, T. Rice (1925).   Sir Charles Napier. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

o    Lawrence Rosamond. N.  (1952). Charles Napier 1782-1853: friend and fighter.  London: John Murray

o    Lambrick, H. T. (1952). Sir Charles Napier and Sind.  Oxford: Clarendon Press.

o    Napier, Priscilla (1990). I have Sind: Charles Napier in India 1841-1844.  Salisbury: Michael Russell.


Nasrullah Khan, Amir

Amir of Bokhara.  Imprisoned Stoddart, and Conolly, and subsequently executed them both in June of 1842.


Negrotto, Federico

Italian topographer.  Accompanied the Duke of Abruzzi to K2 in 1909.


Nicholson, Brig. Gen. John (1823? - 1857)

First went to India as a cadet at age 16.  In 1842, during 1st Anglo-Afghan war, took part in the siege of Ghazni. On promise of being escorted to Gen. Ephinstone, along with 9 other officers, surrendered to Shamsuddin Khan.  Instead, were held prisoner for 6 months.  On the advance of Pollock and Nott, they were taken to join the prisoners (including Eyer, Lawrence, and Lady Sale) who were being held by Akbar Khan, and subsequently released to Shakespear.  In 1852 appointed Deputy Commissioner to Bannu, under the Commisioner, Edwardes.  Led combined Sikh/Moslem troop, organized by John Lawrence, from the Punjab, and put down the revolt in Delhi, during the Sepoy mutiny.  Was killed during the taking of Delhi, which led to wide-spread looting and killing on the part of his victorious troops.


o    Pearson, Hesketh (1939).  The Hero of Delhi: The Life of John Nicholson Saviour of India, and a History of his War.  London:  Collins.

o    Trotter, Capt. Lionel James (1897). The Life of John Nichoson - Soldier and Administrator. Based Upon Private and Hitherto Unpublished Documents.  London:  John Murray.


Nizam-ul-Mulk (Nizám)

Son of Aman-ul-Mulk, Mehar of Chitral.  Took asylum in Gilgit when his brother Afzul-ul-Mulk seized power on his father's death in 1892.  Seized power from his uncle, Sher Afzul, and however briefly, was Mehtar of Chitral, formal recognition being bestowed by the British through the mission by Dr. Robertson in early 1893.   Succeeded by his half-brother, Amir-ul-Mulk, who shot him in the head.


No. 9

See Hari Ram.


Northbrook, Lord Thomas George Baring (1826-1904)

Under Secretary for India (1859–61; 1868–72) and Viceroy, following the assassination of Lord Mayo in 1872.  He resigned in protest in 1876 rather than carry out the aggressive policies of Salisbury towards Sher Ali and Afghanistan.  Succeeded by Lord Lytton.


Nott, General Sir William

In March 1842, following First Anglo-Afghan war, led relief of the garrison in Kandahar.  Then moved on to Kabul on a retaliatory mission, racing with Pollock, who was  doing the same from Peshawar.



Ochterlony, Gen. Sir David

An American, born in Boston.  Went to India as a cadet in 1777.  In February 1809, declared all states on the left of the river Sutlej under British protection, with those on the right under the control of the Sikh state, under Ranjit Singh.  This was followed up, and formalized by the 1809 Treaty of Amritsar, negotiated with Ranjit Singh by  Charles Metcalfe, backed up by  a British military force led by Ochterlony.

During the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16, he was given command of one of the four British columns that Hastings had dispatched.  After the death of  General Robert Gillespie, Ochterlony was given overall command.  During his advance on Kathmandu, he outmanoeuvring the Gurkhas, led by Amar Singh Thapa, by a flank march at the Kourea Ghat Pass.  This victory brought the war to a temporary end, with the signing of the Treaty of Sagauli in 1815.  The treaty was not ratified, however, and hostilities resumed, not to end until 1816.

O'Connor, Capt. Frederick (XX - 1943)

Intelligence officer and chief interpreter on Younghusband mission of 1903-04.  At that time, he was one of only 3 British officers who had passed their exam in Tibetan, and the only one who could hold a conversation. First British Trade Agent in Gyantse when established after 1904.  Close to the Panchen Lama.  Advocated a plan to split Tibet into two parts, with an inner Tibet ruled by the Dalai Lama, and a southern outer Tibet, ruled by the Panchen Lama, not under the influence of China, serving as a buffer state on India's northern frontier. With Bailey, assigned with task of standardizing spelling of Tibetan place names. Collected, translated and published a volume of Tibetan folk-tales


Oderico (Ordoric) of Pordenone (1286 - 1331)

Franciscan friar who left Padua in 1318.  He went over the Black Sea, through Persia, then to the Persian Gulf.  At or near the island that is now Bombay/Mumbai, he recovered the remains of 4 other Franciscans who had preceeded him.  He then continued his trip along the Malibar coast to Calicut, Madras, Sumatra and Java.  He eventually reached China, where he spent three years.  He returned overland, traveling through Tibet in 1327, arriving back in Europe in 1330.   Did not leave any written account of this journey.  May have been the first European to reach Lhasa, although this is disputed. [Cit. 1 ]


o    Komroff, Manuel (ed.)(1928).  Contemporaries of Marco PoloNew York:  Boni & Liveright.

o    Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff.


Ögödei (Okkodai, Ogodei)(1185-1241)

Son of Genghis Khan, and his successor. Was Great Khan from 1229-41. Responsible for significant expansion of Mongol empire. Built Karakorum, the first capital city of the Mongols. [Cit. 1 ]


Olcott, Col. Henry Steele (1832-1907)

Early figure in the cult of Theosophy.  Co-founder (with Madame Blavatsky) of the Theosophical Society in 1875. Traveled with Blavatsky to India.


o    Murphet, Howard (1972).  Hammer on the Mountain: The Life of Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907).  Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House.

o    Olcott, Col. Henry Steele, (1915). Buddhist Catechism.  London: Theosophical Publishing House.

o    Olcott, Col. Henry Steele, (1885). Theosophy: Religion and Occult Science. London: George Redway

o    Prothero, Stephen (1996).  The White Buddhist: The Asian Odyssey of Henry Steel Olcott.  Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.


Oldenburg, Sergi F.

Russian Orientalist. Visited Dunhuang in 1910 and collected artifacts.


Ordoric, Friar

See Oderico of Pordenone.


d'Orléans, Prince Henri (1867-1901)

Famous French explorer. Son of Duc de Chartres.  In 1890 traveled in Tibet with Gabriel Bonvalot, being stopped just north of Lhasa.  Died in Saigon.  Played an indirect role in reinforcing Tibetan fears about British India's designs on Tibet by telling Tibet that only the Russians or French could help them resist such designs.  This made the Tibetans even less willing to treat with the British during the period leading up to, and during, the Younghusband mission, as well as further reinforced the rationale to approch the Russians, through Dorjiev.


d'Orville, Father Albert (1621 - 1662)

Belgian Jesuit who, in 1661, along with Father John Grueber, became the first Europeans clearly to reach Lhasa, (although that distinction might go to Oderico of Prodenone).  Traveled overland from Beijing, through Sining, Koko Nor, Lhasa, and finally to the mission in Agra, India, where he died.


o    Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff.


Outram, Lieut.-Gen. Sir James (1803-63)

Resident in Oudh in 1856 when Dalhousie forced out the king, Wajid Ali Shah, in favour of the British.  Along with Havelock, jointly led a 1,000 man force to relieve Lucknow during the  Indian Mutiny, 1857.  Relief was insufficinet to break the seige.  This took a second relief force, led by Sir Colin Campbell.


o    Trotter, Captain Lionel James (1903). The Bayard of India. A life of General Sir James Outram.  Edinburgh. Blackwood and Sons.


Oukhtomsky, Prince Esper Esperovich

See Ukhtomsky.



Palmerston, Lord (Henry John Temple, 3d Viscount) (1784-1865)

British Foreign Secretary during period of the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42).  Landed  British troops on Kharg Island at the head of the Persian Gulf in 1838, accompanied by a threat to the Shah of Persia that there would be war if the siege of Herat did not cease.


Patawar, The

See Mani Singh.


Payanda (Payinda / Painda) Khan, Sardar (1763-1800)

Also known as Sarfraz Khan. Chief of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis.  Was a supporter of Ahmed Shah of the Popozai branch of the Durranis, and Ahmed's successors, Timur Shah and Zaman Shah .  Nevertheless, Zaman Shah had Sardar Payanda killed in 1800.  This led directly to his sons (of which he had 21) supporting Mahmud Shah in deposing Zaman, and subsequently having him blinded.  Father of Dost Mohammed who became one of the great leaders of Afghanistan.


Pelliot, Paul

A controversial French sinologist/archaeologist, who was active in Chinese Turkistan in 1906, in "competition" with Stein and von Le Coq.  Obtained unique ancient Buddhist manuscripts from the Cave of a Thousand Buddhas at Dunhuang.


Penna, Orazio della

See Francesco Orazio della Penna di Billi.


Perovsky, General V.A.

Russian commander-in-chief in Orenburg.  Appointed Vitkevich to his staff and sent him on his mission to Kabul.

In 1839 mounted the disastrous expedition to Khiva.  Due to an unusually harsh winter, the mission of over 5,000 troops had to retreat home before reaching their destination, having sustained extremely heavy losses: almost two thirds of the men and nearly all the 10,000 pack camels.  The ostensible motivation was to free Russian slaves from the khanate.  The more likely reason was to establish a foothold deeper in Central Asia and access the markets and resources, as well as increased political influence.

Perovsky was removed from his post, shortly thereafter, but returned to in in 1847.  He then proceeded to push Russian frontier outposts and forts east of the Aral Sea.

Perron (Pierre Cuillier.)

French marine, whose real name was Pierre Cuillier, who deserted in 1781 and became a mercenary in Northern India.



o    Grey, C. (H. L. O. Garrett, ed.) (1929). European Adventurers of Northern India, 1785 to 1849. Lahore, India: Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab.


Peter the Great

Tsar of Russia, ruled from 1682-1725.  Sent Bekovich on expedition to Khiva.


Petigax, Joseph & Laurenzo

Joseph was an alpine guide from Courmayeur closely associated with the Duke of Abruzzi, whom he accompanied on all of his expeditions. Laurenzo was his son, who accompanied them on the Ruwenzori & K2 expeditions.  Both also accompanied the Workmans on the Chogo Lungma glacier in 1903.


Petrovsky, Nikolai

Russian Resident in Kashgar from 1882, following the Chinese-Russian treaty signed in St Petersburg in February 1981, which restored Ili (Kuldja) to the Chinese in exchange for the Russians being allowed to place a counsul in Kashgar.  Gained influence there by threatening Chinese with Russian invasion.  Given the proximity of the Russian boundary and troops, and the distance of the British, this threat was taken seriously. Elected to Consul in 1895.  Counterpart of Macartney.  Succeeded by Kolokoloff. More detail to come.


Pollock, Major-General George (1786 - 1872)

East India Company artillary officer.  Had not seen active service since Burma War of 1824.  In March 1842, following FIrst Anglo-Afghan war, led relief of the Sale and the Peshawar garrison, having effectively fought their way over the Khyber Pass (arguably the first army in history to have done so).  Then moved on to Kabul on a retaliatory mission, racing with Nott, who was  doing the same, having relieved the garrison in Kandahar.


o    Greenwood, Lieut. J. (1844).  Narrative of the Late Victorieous Campaign in Affghanistan, Under General Pollock;  with Recollections of Seven Years' Service in India.  London:  Henry Colburn.

o    Low, Charles Rathbone (1873).  The Life of Sir George Pollock.  London:  W.H.Allen & Co.


Polo, Marco

Visited court of Khubilai Khan. Incomplete - more to come. [Cit: 1 ]



·         Polo, Marco; Edited by Richard J. Walsh, Intro by Pearl S. Buck, iIlus by Cyrus LeRoy Baldridge (1298/1948). The Adventures of Marco Polo; As Dictated in Prison to a Scribe in the Year 1298 What he Experience and Heard During his 24 Years Spent in Travel Through Asia and at the Court of Kublai-Khan.  New York, The John Day Company.


Potter, Richard

Enlisted man in the army of the East India Company.  With Masson, in 1826 he deserted, and set off to the Punjab with him, where he joined the army of Gulab Singh while Masson continued on with his travels.  Also known as John Brown.  I don't know which is the alias and which his real name.  Like Masson, claimed to be an American.


Pottinger, Maj. Eldred (1811-1843)

A British officer, nephew of Col. Henry Pottinger.  Was in Herat (western Afghanistan) in 1837 when the Russian backed Persian army tried to take the city.  Pottinger offered his services to Kamran Mirza, and led the successful defense of the city.  This was an early event leading up to the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42).  [Cit. 1]  In 1841, during the war, Pottinger was political officer in Kohistan.  On death of Macnaghten, despite being wounded, was brought from Kohistan to replace him as senior political officer.  Was alone in rejecting the notion of handing over concessions, including weapons and treasury, and trusting Akbar Mohammed to escort safely from Kabul to India.  Rather, he advocated moving from the exposed cantonment to the much safer Bala Hissar (the compound occupied at the time by Shah Shujah), and wait for relief.  He was overruled, with disastrous results.  He died in Hong Kong of illness, while visiting his uncle, Henry Pottinger.


o    Pottinger, G. (1983). The Afghan Connection.  The Extraordinary Adventures of Major Eldred Pottinger.  Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Pottinger, Col. Sir Henry (1789-1856)

British officer.  Uncle of Eldred Pottinger.  In 1810, along with Capt. Charles Christie, disguised as horse traders, set off on an expedition to explore Baluchistan, southern Afghanistan and then on to Persia.  They started out together, then split up, each taking a different route.  Pottinger went south-west then north-west. They were among the first Europeans to travel in this region, and their trip was one of the first of the "Great Game."  Towards the end of his trip, Pottinger's disguise was broken when he visited the town of Bampur, in east Persia.  Captain Grant had visited there the previous year, hence Pottinger was recognized as a European.

Perhaps not surprisingly, given his history of travel in the frontier, Pottinger was a friend and supporter of Masson.  While Commissioner of Sindh and Hyderabad (appointed 1820), Masson stayed with him and completed the volumes of his book.  Alexander Burnes was his assistant in Sindh prior to making his trip to Bokhara..


o    Pottinger, Lt. Henry. (1816).  Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde; Accompanied by a Geographical and Historical Account of those Countries, with a Map.  London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown.

Prejevalski (Prejevalsky, Przhevalsky / Przhewalski), Nikolai

Russia's greatest Central Asian explorer. More to come.



o    Prejevalsky, Nikolai (1879). From Kulja Across the Tien Shan to Lob Nor.  London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington.

o    Prejevalsky, Nikolai. (1876). Mongolia, the Tangut Country and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet: Being a Narrative of Three Years Travel in Eastern High Asia.  Two Volumes.  London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington.


Prithvi Narayan, Shah (?? - 1775)

Ruler from the principality of Gorkha (110 km north west of Kathmandu), who led the invasion of the Kathmandu valley against the Malla kings in 1767-8.  In the process, he united what up to that point had been a diverse set of (about 50) principalities into what is now known as Nepal.  The current monarch is his descendent.


Przhevalsky / Przhewalski

See Prejevalski.


Pundit, The

See Nain Singh.


Pur Dil Khan (1785-1830)

Older brother of Dost Mohammed.  Governor of Kandahar 1826-1830.


Putte, Samuel Van de (?? - 1745)

Dutch traveler who went from India to Beijing, via Lhasa (1729), and returned by the same road  (1730).  On his death he requested his notes of the trip be destroyed, so all that remains is a sketch map.  Likely followed the same route north from Lhasa to Tunhuang, as did the pundit, Kishen Singh (A.K.) between 1878-82.



Quian Long

Chinese emperor who, in response to a request for help, in 1791 pushed the Gurkhas back into Nepal from Tibet.  The main results were a consolidation of Chinese influence in Tibet and a closing of Tibet to Europeans.



Rafailov, Mehki

The Russian name given to a Persian-Jewish trader named Aga Mehdi.  He was from the Caucasus, and had made his way to St. Petersburg.  Became a Russian agent, and was sent to treat with Ranjit Singh on Russia's behalf.  His arrival in Leh, en route to Lahore from Yarkand, was awaited by Moorcroft, who was resident in Leh at the time.  However, Rafailov died while traveling over the Karakoram Pass.


Rahman, Amir Abdur (Abd-ur) ('Abdor Rahman Khan / Abdurrahman) (1844-1901)

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis. Oldest son of Dost Mohammed's second son and legitimate heir, Afzal Khan.  However, on Dost Mohammed's death in 1863, the throne was taken Abdur Rahman's uncle, (Dost Mohammed's 3rd son), Sher Ali.  Abdur Rahman fled to Bokhara.  He raised an army and returned to Afghanistan, where he succeeded in capturing control of Kabul and Ghanzni.  He freed his father from prison, and installed him as Amir in 1866.  However, his father died of cholera in 1867, and during a power struggle between Rahman and his uncle, Azim Khan, who had assumed the position of Amir, Sher Ali regained power in 1868.  Rahman  then fled to Samarkand, via Waziristan, Persia, Bokhara and Tashkent, where he lived under Russian protection as their protégé for 12 years.  He returned to Afghanistan in 1880, on the death of Sher Ali, and in May of that year was made the offer to became Amir of Kabul by the British, which he accepted.  This was during the final stages of the second Anglo-Afghan war.  Abdur Rahman then asserted and consolidated his authority, largely by force and ruthlessness.  In April 1881 the British ceded Kandahar to Abdur Rahman, and the British forces under Roberts withdrew.  However, in June of that year, his cousin Ayub Khan, ruler of Herat, had taken Kandahar.  In September 1881 Abdur Rahman established himself Amir of all of Afghanistan by taking control of both cities, and forcing Ayub Khan into exile in Persia.  Signed Durand Line Treaty, which divided the frontier districts of the Punjab from Afghanistan.  Succeeded by his son, Amir Habibullah.


Ram, Atma

Pundit who accompanied Bower and Thorold on their trip from Ladakh, over the Tibetan plateau, to China in 1891-92.


Ram, Hari ("M.H." & "No. 9")

Pundit who worked under Montgomerie.  Made three pioneering trips mapping regions of Nepal, and the Tibet-Nepalese border.  Made three main trips: 1871-72, 1873 and 1885-86.


o    Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.


Ramsay, Captain

British Resident in Nepal in 1861.  British Joint Commissioner in Leh in 1889.


Ranbahadur (Rana Bahadur Shah) (circa 1775 - 1806)

Raja of Nepal (1777-1799).  Fled in 1800 and set up residence in exile in Benares, where Vanderheyden was British Resident.  Resulting political crisis in Nepal provided opening for the trade treaty negotiated by Knox and his residency in Kathmandu.  Returned to Nepal in 1804, to act as regent (mukhtiyar) for his son (Girvana Judha Bikram / Girvan Yuddha Shah, Raja from 1799-1816).  Murdered in 1806 by his half-brother, Sher Bahadur.  Effective power then assumed by Bhim Sen Thapa, who had been made chief administrator (kaji), on Ranbahadur's return. [Cit.1 ]


Raper, Captain Felix B.

In 1808 was a member of a party led by (the then) Lieutenant Webb, which also included Capt. Hyder Young Hearsey, to explore and survey the source of the Ganges.  They reached the source of the eastern branch near Badrinath before being forced back by increasing Gurkha hostility.


Rawling, Capt. Cecil G.

British explorer and surveyor. Twice crossed Tibetan frontiers, first with Hargreaves and Ram Singh (1903) and then, attached to the Younghusband Mission in 1904.  In this latter, he was accompanied by F. M. Bailey and a strong band of surveyors under C.H.D. Ryder and H. Wood.  In this second expedition, they came within 60 miles of the north side of Everest and that region was included in their survey.

Along with Longstaff, Rawling was very critical of Hedin's claims of "discovery" of the "Trans-Himalaya" range.


·         Rawling, Cecil G. (1905).  The Great Plateau. Being an Account of Exploration in Central TIbet, 1903, and of the Gartok Expedition, 1904-1905. London:  Edward Arnold.


Rawlinson, Major-General Sir Henry (1810-1895)

As a British subaltern, was stationed in Tehran.  In 1837, while riding to the East, towards Herat, to meet the Shaw, he encountered a Russian officer, Vitkevich, and his Cossack escort.  On determining that they were going to Kabul in order to meet with, and give gifts to, the ruler, Dost Mohammed, Rawlinson returned to Tehran in order to alert the British authorities in Calcutta and London, since this represented an expansion of Russian Kandahar.

In 1841, was in Kandahar during the First Anglo-Afghan War.


o    Rawlinson, Sir Henry (1875).  England and Russia in the East. London:  John Murray.

o    Rawlinson, Major-General Sir Henry (1879).  "The Road to Merv."  Lecture presented to the Royal Geographical Society,  in D. Cummings (Ed.)(1977).  The Country of the Turkomans - An Anthology of Exploration from the Royal Geographical Society. London:  Oguz Press and the Royal Geographical Society, 89-123.


Regel, Dr. Albert

Russian botanist/explorer.  In 1879 discovered the ruins of the ancient Uighur capital of Karakhoja, near Turfan.   Active in Pamirs between 1881-83.

Rennell, James (1742-1830)

Learned surveying and map making in British navy.  In 1762 sailed with Alexander Dalrymple from Madras and explored and surveyed the north coast of Borneo.  Was with the Survey of Bengal 1765-77, (which was set up by Clive to survey the territories secured by the British by the Battle of Plassey in 1757), and its  surveyor-general in 1767.  Rose to the rank of Major by 1776.  Returned to the UK in 1777.  Created map of "Hindoostan" in 1792. Due to his theories, is considered the father of modern oceanography. [Cit: 1 ]


o    Rennell, James (1792). Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan; or the Mogul's Empire:  With an Introduction, Illustrative of the Geograpohy and Present Division of that Country; and a Map of the Countires Situated Between the Heads of the Indian Rivers, and the Caspian Sea. 2nd Edition. London: W. Bulmer and Co.


Reynolds, Charles (ca. 1756-1819)

Surveyor general of Bombay, 1796-1807.


Ripon, George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of, 2nd Earl of Ripon, Viscount Goderich of Nocton (1827-1909)

Succeeded Lord Lytton as Viceroy of India (1880-1884).  Helped bring about the end of the Second Anglo-Afghan War by recognizing, Amir Abdur Rahman as Amir and withdrawing troops. Succeeded by Lord Dufferin.


Roberts, Gen. Sir Abraham

Father of Frederick Roberts.  Served in both India and in Afghanistan, where he was commander of the troops of Shah Shujah.  He avoided the debacle of the British retreat from Kabul, having requested a transfer due to his disatisfaction with the leadership there.


Roberts, Field-Marshal Earl Frederick S. (1832-1914)

Son of Abraham Roberts.  British officer in India.  Won Victoria Cross during the Indian Mutiny (1857).  Before the Mutiny had been based in Peshawar, under his father's command.  A key player during the second Anglo-Afghan war.  Led punitive expedition to Kabul in October 1879, following the murder of Cavagnari.  Held court of inquiry to determine culprits, and hanged those found guilty.  Due to the harshness of penalty, the number of people (close to 100) and dubiousness of some of the verdicts, this resulted in strong Afghan resentment against the English, as well as criticism in England and India.   The Afghan resentment grew to the point where the tribes collectively attacked Robert's forces at Kabul in December.  Due to inside intelligence, excellent preparations and far superior weapons, the Afghans were soundly defeated (3,000 killed, compared to 5 British).  The resentment remained, but the battle was won.

The British, under Roberts, were then about to withdraw from Kabul when they were informed of the devastating defeat of Burrows by Ayub Khan, and the subsequent siege of the British Garrison at Kandahar.  His force of 10,000 made a remarkable forced march of 300 miles in 20 days to relieve the garrison, and soundly defeat the Afghan army.

Roberts was also an early advocate of allocating military spending to the construction of roads and railways to the frontier, rather than forts.  He went on to distinguish himself in the South African War (1899–1902), and was the last commander in chief of the British Army (1901–04) before that office was disbanded.  He was made a baron in 1892 and an earl and viscount in 1901.  He retired at the rank of field marshal.


o    Roberts, Frederick (1908).  Forty-one Years in India.  London:  Longman.

o    Brooke-Hunt, Violet (1915).  Lord Roberts: A Biography. London: James Nisbet

o    Low, Charles Rathbone (1883).  Major-General Sir Frederick S. Roberts Bart VC GCB CIE RA.  London: W.H. Allen & Co.


Robertson, Surgeon-Major George

A British medical officer who moved into the Intelligence Service.  Active in Gilgit with Algernon Durand, whom he eventually succeeded as British Resident.  In 1888 & 1889 sent by Durand to Dardistan to deal with Kafirs. In January 1893 led a mission to Chitral in order to bestow formal recognition to Nizam-uk-Mulk as Mehtar.  Was accompanied on this mission, beyond his military escort, by Younghusband and Bruce.  In late 1894, while serving as Senior British officer in Gilgit, led a force back to Chitral to relieve Gurdon, who had been visiting Nizam when the latter was shot in the head and killed by his brother, Amir-ul-Mulk.  Gurden was at risk because Amir feared British retribution for the killing of Nizam, due to their having formally recognized his rule.

On reaching Mastuj in January 1895, news came that Umra Khan had entered Chitral territory with an army, apparently at the request of Amir, who feared British retribution for the killing of Nizam.  This led to Robertson continuing on to the town of Chitral.  His troop occupied the fort, and was placed under siege, beginning March 3. The British were eventually relieved April 20 by the forces from Gilgit, led by Kelly, and  those that arrived a week later from Peshawar, led by Sir Robert Low.  While under siege, Robertson deposed Amir, and replaced him by his 12 year old brother, Shuja-ul-Mulk.


o    Robertson, Sir George (1898). Chitral - The Story of a Minor Siege. London, Methuen.


Roerich, Nicholas

Roerich was an important 20th century Russian artist.  Among other things, he designed the sets for the premieres of the Russian Ballet's Rite of Spring and Petrushka, both of whose music was composed by Stravinsky.  Roerich spent over 5 years traveling in the Himalaya and Central Asia, documented in his book Altai Himalaya: A Travel Diary.  A brief biography has been written by Paelian.


o    Paelian, Garabed (1974). Nicholas Roerich. Sedona: Aquarian Educational Group

o    Roerich, Nicholas (1929).  Altai Himalaya: A Travel Diary. New York: Frederick A. Stokes.


Roshan Akhtar

See Muhammed Shah.


Rubruck, Friar William of (~1200 - ~1256)

Franciscan friar, a native of Flanders.  At request of Louis IX of France, whom he had accompanied on the 7th Crusade (1248-54), undertook a mission to Mongolia ostensibly in the hopes of converting the Mongols to Christianity.  The reality was that a significant number of Mongols were already Christian, including the mother of the Khan.  But Rubruck would not have thought this relevant since he considered anyone not a Roman Catholic a heretic, including other sects of Christians.  This intolerance was in marked contrast to the freedom of religion of the Mongols.

Accompanied by Friar Bartholomew of Cremona, Rubruck left Constantinople in 1253, crossed the Black Sea, through the Crimea, and then east, eventually reaching the Mughal capital, Karalorum.  There met the Great Khan, Mangu Mongke.  He returned to Cyprus in 1255, but Louis had returned to France.  We have an extensive written record of his trip because he was not permitted by his order to return to France, and consequently had to give his report in writing (written in Acre) rather than verbally in person.  His report provides one of the first references to life in Tibet. [Cit: 1].  Note that the Jackson & Morgan edition of Rubruck's account is not only a newer translation than that of Rockhill, but also has more up to date notes which reflect advances in Mongol scholarship in the intervening years.


o    Jackson. Peter &  Morgan, David (Trans & Eds.)(1990). The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck: His Journey to The Court of Great Khan Mongke 1253-1255. London: The Hakluyt Society.

o    Komroff, Manuel (ed.)(1928).  Contemporaries of Marco PoloNew York:  Boni & Liveright.

o    Rockhill, William Woodville. (Ed. & trans.)(1900). The Journey of William Rubruck to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1253-55, as Narrated by Himself, with Two Accounts of the Earlier Journey of John of Pian De Carpine.  London:  Hakluyt Society.

o    Wessels, C. (1924). Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721.  The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff.


Ryder, C.H.D.

Cartographer.  Traveled in Tibet with Rawling.



Saduzai, Asadullah Khan

Led insurrection against Persian control of Herat province following that in Kandahar in 1706, led by Mir Wais.


Sale, General Sir Robert (1782-1845)

British officer during the 1st Anglo-Afghan war.  Before the fall of Kabul, was transferred to take command of Jalalabad.  He left his wife, Lady Florentina Sale, in Kabul, where she was taken prisoner.  They were reunited when she was freed, after the conflict, but he was killed shortly thereafter during the Sikh wars.


o    Gleig, Rev. G.R. (1846).  Sale’s Brigade in Afghanistan.  London:  John Murray.


Sale, Lady Florentina (1787-1853)

Wife of Robert Sale. Resident in Kabul during the 1st Anglo-Afghan war.  Taken prisoner by Mohammed Akbar Khan, and released to Sir Richmond Shakespear after the end of the conflict.   After the death of her husband she retired to Simla.  Note, the 1969 reissue of her journal, editted by Macrory, also includes an appendix with Dr. Bydon's own account of his account of his ride to Jellalabad, during the retreat from Kabul.


Sandeman, Robert Groves (1835-1892)

British officer of Scottish origin. Service during the Mutiny drew the attention of John Lawrence, who in 1859 offered him the post of assistant commissioner in the North-West Frontier.  From 1866 until his death in 1892 built up a stable relationship for the British in Baluchistan, which supported Britiain even during the second Anglo-Afghan war.


Satow, Sir Ernest Mason (1843-1929)

British diplomat who served in Asia, including Minister-Resident, Bangkok (1884-87) and in Japan (1895-1900).  Was British Minister in Beijing (1900-06). Along with Tang Shao-yi representing China, signed the Peking Treaty of 1906.  This was a follow-up to the Lhasa Convention, negotiated by Younghusband in 1904.  Its six points included recognition of the Lhasa Convention, Britain agreeing not to annex any part of Tibet, and China agreeing not to permit any other foreign country annex Tibet territory.

Savoy, Prince Luigi Amedeo of

The Duke of Abruzzi.

Sayyid (Syed) Ahmed (Ahmad) Shah ( Shaheed ) Barelvi (Brelwi) (1786–1831)

Founder of a populist Indian Muslim movement, in which the hadis were taught in the  local language of the people, and the Koran was translated into Urdu.  The movement expanded to the political from the religious, leading to conflicts with both the British and the Sikhs.  In these battles, his followers were called Mujahideen, or "holy warriers." In 1824 he incited the Yusufzai tribes against the Sikh kingdom and in 1827 managed to seize and temporarilly hold  Peshawar from the Skihs. He was eventually defeated by Hari Singh in 1931 in the district of Hazara, where he lost his life in the battle of Balakot. The movement continued to develop after his death, under the leadership of Wilayat Ali.

Schlagintweit, Adolph (1829-1857)

Along with his brothers Herman and Robert, made a monumental study of the western Himalayan region between 1854 and 1857.  Was executed as a spy just outside Kashgar.


Schlagintweit, Herman (1826-1882)

Along with his brothers Adolph and Robert,made a monumental study of the western Himalayan region between 1854 and 1857.


Schlagintweit, Robert (1833-1885)

Along with his brothers Herman and Adolph, made a monumental study of the western Himalayan region between 1854 and 1857.


Schmidt, Isaak Jakob

Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In the 1830's, compiled the first Russian-Tibetan dictionary and grammar.


Scott, David

Collector of Rangpur.  In December 1814, during the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816), was instructed to attempt to establish contact with Lhasa, either through Sikkim or Bhutan, in order to explain British India's position with respect to the Gurkhas.  Since Nepal was considered within China's sphere of influence, British India was concerned that their position against the Gurkhas should not have a negative impact on Chinese-British relationships.  Scott’s attempt to establish contact with Lhasa was concurrent to Captain Latter being ordered to Sikkim.  While Scott attempted to send an agent, Kishen Kant Bose to Lhasa, via Bhutan, the agent did not make it into Tibet, and the initiative was a failure.


Sella, Vittorio

An Italian mountaineer, who is also one of the great mountain photographers.  He accompanied the Duke of Abruzzi on his expeditions to Mount St. Elias (1897), the Ruwenzori in Africa (1906), and K2 (1909).  As a climber, Sella made the first winter traverses of the Matterhorn (1882), Monte Rosa (1884) and Mont Blanc (1888).

For a collection of some of Sella's photographs from the Karakoram, see, Alpinismo Italiano in Karakorum / Italian Mountaineering in the Karakoram, edited by Aldo Audisio Aldo.

Semionov, Petr Petrovich (Tian-Shanski) (1827-1914)

Russian geographer and explorer in Central Asia. Vice President of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society from 1873 until 1914.


Shakespear, Sir Richmond

British officer. In 1840 followed Abbott to Khiva from Herat in the fear that he had been taken prisoner.  There he negotiated freeing of Russian slaves to remove the main pretext that the Russians could use to annex the town.  In 1842, led the party that recovered the British hostages taken by Akbar Khan, during the British retreat from Kabul during the First Anglo-Afghan War.


o    Shakespear, Sir. Richmond (1842).  A Personal Narrative of a Journey from Heraut to Ourenbourg, on the Caspian, in 1840Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Edinburgh: William Blackwood, Vol LI(CCCXX), 691-720.


Shao-yi, Tang  (Tan Shaoi)

Chinese delegate  who, along with Sir Ernest Mason Satow for Britain, signed the Peking Treaty of 1906.  This was a follow-up to the Lhasa Convention, negotiated by Younghusband in 1904.  Its six points included recognition of the Lhasa Convention, Britain agreeing not to annex any part of Tibet, and China agreeing not to permit any other foreign country annex Tibet territory.


Shaw, Robert Barkley (1839-1879)

A British tea planter from Kangra from 1859.  Was Younghusband's uncle, and one of his key inspirations.  On Sept. 20, 1868 set off from Leh with a caravan to Yarkand and Kashgar with intent of setting up trade.  Met Hayward en route to Yarkand, but wanted nothing to do with him, viewing him as an interloper who might jeopardize his trip.  Shaw was the first Englishman to reach Yarkand, in 1868, and Kashgar, in 1869;  however, he was essentially under house arrest in Kashgar, by the then ruler of Turkistan, Yakub Beg,  until April 1869.  Along with Henderson, was deputed by Lord Mayo to assist in the first official mission to Eastern Turkestan in 1870, led by Forsyth, the so-called 1st Forsyth Mission.


o    Shaw, Robert.  (1871).  Visits to High Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar (Formerly Chinese Tartary), and Return Journey over the Karakoram Pass.  London: John Murray.


Shelton, Col.

A colonel in the 44th Foot.  Second in command to Maj. Gen. WIlliam Elphinstone (who he openly opposed) in Kabul during the First Anglo-Afghan war.


Sher Ali Khan (Shir 'Ali Khan) (1825-1879)

Member of the Barakzai branch of the Durranis and the  fifth son of Dost Mohammed.  Dost Mohammed's death in 1863 was followed by five years of civil war.  So while Sher Ali succeeded him as Amir, his position was not consolidated until 1868.  First, he was deposed in 1866 by his nephew, Abdur Rahman, who installed his father, Afzal Khan (Sher Ali's brother) as Amir.  Afzal Khan died of cholera 1867, and was succeeded by another son of the Dost, Azim Khan. He ruled for only a year (1867-68). Sher Ali then took advantage of a power struggle between Azim Khan and Abdur Rahman, and regained power (1868).  He instituted the first public schools in Kabul, including the teaching of English.  However, he was under a great deal of pressure from both the Russians and the British.  The Russians, through Kaufman, threatened to replace him with Abdur Rahman if he did not cooperate with them.  The British, on the other hand, threatened to replace him if he treated with the Russians.  He tried to treat with the British, first with Lord Mayo, and after Mayo was assassinated in 1872, with Lord Northbrook.  Among other things, he wanted a pledge of British support, as well as support for the succession of his second son, Abdullah Jan, as opposed to his oldest son Yakub Khan.

On their part, the British believed that Sher Ali was still coming too much under the influence of the Russians, and hence directed Northbrook to apply pressure.  Northbrook disagreed with this, and resigned in protest in 1876.  He was consequently replaced by Lytton, who took a more aggressive stance.

In the summer of 1878 the Russians sent an unsolicited mission to Kabul, led by General Stolyetov, which arrived on July 22.  On August 14 the British demanded that Sher Ali accept a British mission. The court was in mourning due to the death of Abdullah Jan.  When Sher Ali did not responded by August 17, the British dispatched an envoy, Sir Neville Chamberlain, who was accompanied by  a small military force.  Their attempt to enter Afghanistan was stopped at  the Khyber Pass by Sher Ali's troops.

The British demanded an explanation of this insult to their prestige, and when a satisfactory one was not forthcoming, on November 21, 1878, they invaded the country from three points.   Thus began  the second Anglo-Afghan War.  In 1879, Sher Ali placed Yakub Khan on the throne, and fled towards Turkistan.  He died en route, on Feb. 21, and soon after, Abdur Rahman, supported by the British, replaced Yakub as Amir.

For an aid in making sense of these complicated family relationships, see the family tree that I have constructed.


o    Gregorian, Vartan (1969).  The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan. Palo Alto:  Stanford University Press.


Sherbatstsky, F.I.

Russian Tibetologist at end of the 19th century.


Sherley, Sir Robert

One of two catholic brothers who entered the service of the Shah of Persia during the reign of Elizabeth I.  Became first ambassador of Persia to court of James I, presenting himself in 1611.  His promotion of Persia, along with the accounts of Steel, helped alert factors of the East India Company in Surat about its potential in terms of trade.  Keay (1991), p.103.


Sher Shah

Afghan/Persian leader who, in 1540, defeated Humayun, and seized the Mughal empire.  He held it for 15 years, during which time (according to Woodruff's The Founders ) established a revenue system that was matched in its fairness and administration, by that of Akbar.  Defeated in 1555 when Humayun retook Delhi.


Shore, Sir John (First Baron Teignmouth) (1751 – 1834)

Succeeded Cornwallis as governor-general of Fort William in Bengal, 1793-1798. Succeeded by Lord Wellesley.  President of the Asiatic Society, 1792-1797. Acted on Kirkpatrick’s recommendation to develop trade with Tibet through Nepal.  [Cit. 1].


Shuja, Mirza (~1822-1873)

The "Mirza", one of the "pundits" trained by Montgomerie.  First came to notice of Pottinger during defense of Herat.  Traveled with him to Kabul.  Taught English by Capt. Colin Mackenzie.  Worked for Walker, surveying the Peshawar border region in early 1850's.  Between 1857-67 was back in Kabul.  Taught English to the children of Dost Mohammed.  On his death in 1863, worked for his son, Sher Ali, who became the new Amir.  Returned to India due to civil conflict in Kabul.  Recruited as pundit.  In 1867-68 traveled south from Peshawar to Kandahar, north to Kabul, then north, following Wood's route up the Oxus, and across the Pamirs, to Kashgar where he was placed under house arrest.  There he tried to get help from Shaw, who (as well as Hayward) was there at the same time, but Shaw would have nothing to do with him. Eventually he was freed to leave, and went south through Yarkand, over the Karakoram Pass, and back to India.  During his trip he collected valuable geographic information, especially about the route through the Pamirs to Kashgar, and political and economic information about the regions that he passed through.

In 1872 he set out on his second trip, this time with his son-in-law.  This time he was to travel to Bokhara.  They made it through Herat to Maimana, but were both murdered by their guides after that.


o    Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.



Do not confuse with Shah Shujah (see next listing below.)  Made Mehtar of Chitral at age 12 in place of his brother, Amir, by Robertson in Feb. 18 1895, during the siege of Chitral.


Shujah-ul Mulk, Shah (1780-1842)

Member of the Popozai branch of the Durranis. Grandson of Ahmed Shah Abdali, 13th son of Timur Shah, and full brother to Zaman Shah.  Took power from Zaman Shah in 1803. In 1809 was overthrown by his elder brother Mahmud Shah. This was immediatedly after his 1809 meeting with Mountstuart Eliphinstone in Peshawar. On being deposed, wandered for some years, and then became a refugee at the Punjabi court of Ranjit Singh. He then was supported by the British in Ludhiana.  In 1833 made an abortive attempt to regain the throne by force.

In 1839, during the first Anglo-Afghan war, was restored to power in Kabul, as a puppet of the British, in place of Dost Mohammed.  This was during the time of Burnes and Macnaghten, but his reign was brief, and he was assassinated by his own countrymen in 1842.

Singh, Dhian

Along with his brothers, Gulab SIngh and Suchet Singh, and son, Hira Sing, one of the "Dogra Rajas" that played an important role during, and after, the reign of Ranjit Singh.  Joined service of Ranjit Singh about 1809.  In 1818 he was appointed the prestigious position of deodhiwala (keepr of the gate).  In 1820 Jammu was given in jagir to the entire Dogra family.


Singh, Duleep (Dulip / Dalip) (1838-1893)

Was the youngest of Ranjit Singh's four acknowledged sons.  In 1843, on his fifth birthday, was made Maharaja of the Punjab, largely due to the manipulations by his mother, Rani Jandin, who became regent.  In 1849, following the Second Anglo-Sikh War, in the Treaty of Annexation, he signed away all rights to sovereignty to the Punjab, thereby allowing the British to annex the territory, rather than have it be a protectorate (as it had become following the Treaty of Lahore).  In 1850 became a Christian.  In 1854, moved to England, where he was given a pension, and became a favourite of Queen Victoria.  In 1885, in the midst of the Pandjeh crisis, embarked to India, wrote an open letter in which he renounced Christianity in favour of Sikhdom.  Fearing that he would become involved in a Sikh uprising against the British, supported by the Russians, the British arrested him en route, in Aden.  He sent his family back to England, remained incarcerated in Aden for a while, where he renounced the Treaty of Annexation.  He went to Paris, and in 1887, to Russia, where he tried to enlist support for an invasion of India, supported by an uprising in the Punjab.  This came to nothing, and he subsequently settled in Paris.  Suffered a heart attack in 1890, and died in 1893.


Singh, Gulab (1792-1857)

The head of the "Dogra Rajas", made up of Gulab Singh, his brothers Dhian Singh andSuchet Singh, and Dhian Singh's son, Hira Singh.   In 1820 Jammu was given in jagir to the entire Dogra family.  Gulab Sing was appointed Raja of Jammu by Ranjit Singh in 1822. In the following years of Ranjit Singh's reign, his power, and the extent of the lands controlled by him and his brothers increased. In 1834 he had his commander, Zorawar Sing, invade Ladakh. Keeping Ladakh under control required repeated excursions, until it was finally supressed in 1840.  Towards the end of that year, Zorawar Singh, at the request of Gulab SIngh, invaded Baltistan and occcupied the capital, Skardu.  In 1841 Zorawar Sing, attacked and briefly occupied region of Tibet up to Lake Manasarowar.  The Dogras were driven back by a Tibetan force.  In October 1842 the Tibetans and Dogras came to terms in a treaty signed in Leh.  This restored the status quo and was seen to give Gulab Singh a monopoly on the shawl wool trade, which had been his original objective.

During the first Anglo-Sikh war (1845-46), despite being nominally under the sphere of Lahore, managed to avoid conflict with the British.  The Sikhs signed the treaty of Lahore in March 1846, which ceeded all of the Sikh hill states between the Sutlej and the Indus to Britain.  Because of his neutrality during the conflict, three weeks later, by the Treaty of Amritsar, Gulab Singh was made ruler of Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh, which were included in this territory, thus becoming Maharaja of Kashmir.  The conditions were that he was to pay a small annual tribute to Britain, to not employ Europeans or Americans without British permission, for Britain to arbitrate boundary disputes, and to agree to a boundary commission to fix the border with Tibet.  (This led to the commission led by Alexander Cunningham and Vans Agnew.)  Gulan Singh was succeeded by his son, Rambir Singh.  Of the two books listed below, the latter, the Jammu Fox, is by far the better history.


o    Panikkar, K.M. (1953). Founding of the Kashmir State - A Biography of Maharajah Gulab Singh 1792-1858.  London:  George Allen & Unwin.  (Originally appeared in 1930 under title, "Gulab Singh" published by Martin Hopkinson, of London.)

o    Singh, Bawa Satinder (1974).  Jammu Fox:  A Biography of Maharaja Gulab Singh of Kashmir, 1792-1857. Carbondale, Il.: Southern Illinois University Press.


Singh (Nalua), Sardir Hari (1791-1837)

Marshal of the Sikh army (or "Khalsa") of Ranjit Singh




Singh, Hira (1801 - 1844)

Along with his uncles, Gulab SIngh and Suchet Singh, and father, Dhian Singh, was the youngest of the "Dogra Rajas" that played an important role during, and after, the reign of Ranjit Singh.  Was brought up in the court of Ranjit Singh, who treated him like a favoured son, and named him Raja in 1828.  This favour contributed to the influence of his family, and led to some thought that he may be a successor to Ranjit on his death.  His being a hindu, however, was an impediment to his heading the Sikh state.   Out of  the aftermath of the murder of his father in 1843, he became wazir, thereby maintaining the influence of the Dogra rajas in the Punjab.


Singh, Ilam (??-1847)

Chief Minister, or Dewan, of Sikkim.  Viewed by Dr. Campbell as the only competent and trustworthy member of the Sikkimese government.  Succeeded by Tibetan, Tokhang Donyer Namgyal.


Singh, Kalian (G.K.)

Brother of Nain Singh (The Pundit).  Recruited by Montgomerie to join Nain and and his cousin, Mani, on their second trip in 1867 to survey the region north of Gartok and east of Ladakh.  Code named "G.K."

In 1873, Nain, Kalian, and Kishen Singh jointed Trotter on the second Forsyth mission to Kashgar.


o    Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.


Singh, Kashmira

Along with Kharak Singh, Sher Singh, Peshora Singh and Duleep Singh, one of Ranjit Singh's sons.


Singh, Kharak

Along with Sher Singh, Kashmira Singh, Peshora Singh and Duleep Singh, one of Ranjit Singh's sons.


Singh, Kishen (A.K.)

One of the "Pundits."  In 1871-2 traveled from Kumaon north to Lake Manasarowar, then south east along the Tsangpo valley to Shigatse, north around the Tengri Nor, south to Lhasa, then returned following the Tsangpo valley.

In 1873, Nain, Kalian, and Kishen Singh jointed Trotter on the second Forsyth mission to Kashgar.

Between 1878 and 1882, he made perhaps the longest (2,800 miles) and hardest trips of any of the  "The Pundits."  He left Darjeeling to Lhasa, north into China, almost to Outer Mongolia, south via a different route to southeastern Tibet, then returned to Darjeeling, following westward along the Tibet/Assam border.


o    Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.


Singh, Mani (The Patwar)

Bhotian recruited, along with his cousin, Nain, in 1863 by Smyth for Montgomerie's Pundits.  From the village of Milam. His father had traveled with Moorcroft and Hearsey in western Tibet in 1812.  Traveled to western Tibet with Richard and Henry Strachey.  In 1855-57 traveled with the Schlagintweit brothers [Cit. 1, 2, 3].  Code-named "The Patwar."  Set out for Tibet with Nain, "The Pundit", however never got beyond Nepal.

Nain, Kalian and Mani Singh set out in 1867 from Mussoorie, north over the Mana Pass (the main pass between British Garhwal and Tibet) to gain information about the Tibetan gold fields in Thok Jalung, northeast of Gartok.


o    Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.


Singh, Nain (The Pundit)

Bhotian recruited, along with his cousin, Mani, in 1863 by Smyth for Montgomerie's Pundits.  From the village of Milam. His father had traveled with Moorcroft and Hearsey in western Tibet in 1812.  Traveled to western Tibet with Richard and Henry Strachey.  In 1855-57 traveled with the Schlagintweit brothers [Cit. 1, 2, 3].  Was code-named "The Pundit," since he was a teacher.

His first trip was in 1865-6.  He set out to Tibet with Mani, who never got beyond Nepal.  However, Nain persisted, and reached Lhasa in 1866, where he stayed for about 3 months.  He then returned to India, having mapped both the route and Lhasa, and having collected significant information about the city and its culture.

Nain, Kalian and Mani Singh set out in 1867 from Mussoorie, north over the Mana Pass (the main pass between British Garhwal and Tibet) to gain information about the Tibetan gold fields in Thok Jalung, northeast of Gartok.

In 1873, Nain, Kalian, and Kishen Singh jointed Trotter on the second Forsyth mission to Kashgar.

In 1874-75 explored a route more-or-less parallel to, but north of, the Tsangpo River, from Leh in Ladakh east to the Tengri Nor, south to Lhasa, then east to Chetang, and south to India


o    Waller, Derek (1990).  The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet & Central Asia. Lexington, KY, U.S.A.: University Press of Kentucky.


Singh, Peshora

Along with Kharak Singh, Kashmira Singh, Sher Singh and Duleep Singh, one of Ranjit Singh's sons.


Singh, Rambir

Son of Gulab Singh.  Succeeded him as ruler of Kashmir and Jammu in 1857.


Singh, Ranjit (1780-1839)

Sikh ruler, based in Lahore, Punjab.  Became governor of Lahore in 1798 in exchange for acknowledging the overlordship of Shah Zaman. Proclaimed Maharaja of Punjab in April of 1801. Seized control of Amritsar in 1809.  In 1819 he conquered Kashmir and Jammu, which he took from the Afghans, and in 1822 he appointed the Dogra chieftain, Gulab Singh governor.  Was close ally of British.  Strategically, one of the ways that Singh was able to hold his own with the British was his early recognition that this required adopting European military means.  To accomplish this, he recruited (primarily artillery) officers from the remains of Napoleon's army.  Primary among these were  Allard, Avitable, Ventura and Court.  Singh held Peshawar, which had been taken from Afghanistan in 1823.  This was source of contention with Dost Mohammed.  The British supported Ranjit Singh in this in exchange for his agreement to serve as a buffer, and provide support, in the event that the Russians attempted to invade British India through Afghanistan.  Hence, Dost Mohammed's reluctant turn to the Russians for support.  In 1838 Ranjit Singh was a signatory to the Tripartite Treaty, which included support for Shah Shujah's restoration to the throne of Afghanistan, in the lead-up to the first Anglo-Afghan War.

Ranjit Singh's death led to instability in the Punjab, since he left with no strong ruler as a successor. Among the chaos following his death, in 1843, the  youngest of his 46 wives, Rani Jandin, managed to get her son, Duleep Singh declared Maharaja, and her declared Regent.  Duleep was five years old, and the youngest of Ranjit's four acknowledged sons.   [Cit. 1, 2, 3 ]



Singh, Sher

Along with Kharak Singh, Kashmira Singh, Peshora Singh and Duleep Singh, one of Ranjit Singh's sons.


Singh, Suchet

Along with his brothers, Gulab SIngh and Dhian Singh, and nephew, Hira Sing, one of the "Dogra Rajas" that played an important role during, and after, the reign of Ranjit Singh.  In 1818 admitted as courtier to the durbar of Ranjit Singh.


Singh, Thakar

Cousin of Duleep Singh.  Headed a Sikh reform group, Singh Sabha, allied with the Theosophists.


Singh, Zorawar (1786-1841)

Military commander of Gulab Singh.  In 1834 conquered Ladakh, which became a dependent territory of the Sikh government of the Punjab.  However, from then until 1840 he had to return almost every year in order to suppress dissent. Towards the end of 1840, at the request of Gulab SIngh, invaded Baltistan and occupied the capital, Skardu. He then invaded western Tibet in 1841, where, after deciding to winter in Tibet, his army was cut off and defeated by Tibetan troops. He and most of his officers were killed in this action. The Chinese then invaded Ladakh, and lay seige to Leh.  In October 1842 the Tibetans and Dogras came to terms in a treaty signed in Leh.  This restored the status quo and was seen to give Gulab Singh a monopoly on the shawl wool trade, which had been his original objective.


Sleeman, Maj.-Gen. Sir William (1788-1856)

Suppressed Thuggi, 1835-41.


Smyth, Major

Was with the Education Department in Kumaon, an area annexed from Nepal after the Anglo-Gurkha war of 1916. This was a territory along the Tibetan border, populated by Bhotians, who were of Tibetan stock.  Used his knowledge of the people, gained from his role in the Education Department, to identify candidates to be recruited for Montgomerie's Pundits.



British overland traveler whose accounts, circa 1610, (combined with the embassy of Sherley), helped alert factors of the East India Company in Surat about the potential of trade with Persia.  Keay (1991), p.103.


Stein, Sir Mark Aurel (1862 -1943)

A largely neglected Hungarian-born philologist and archaeologist, who became a British citizen in 1904.  Studied in Hungary, Germany, Austria and Britain.  Took an academic appointment in Lahore, and studied ancient manuscripts and traveled extensively in Kashmir.  During this time, a number of ancient manuscripts came to light, such as the Bower Manuscript, and those purchased by Macartney.  These all reputedly came from the Taklamakan Desert, in the area around Khotan.  These discoveries, and what they implied led to his growing interest in archaeology and exploring that region.

His first expedition was in 1897-8, when he studied the Graeco-Buddhist ruins of Gamdhara in the Swat Valley. His first major archaeological expedition was in 1900-1, when he traveled in Central Asia to Kashgar and then to Khotan.

In 1906-8 he led an archeological expedition in the Taklamakan desert. In 1913-5 led another expedition to the Taklamakan and surrounding areas.


o    Mirsky, Jeannette. (1977). Sir Aurel Stein: Archaeological Explorer. Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

o    Stein, Sir Aurel (1903).  Sand Buried Ruins of Khotan.  London:  Fisher & Unwin.
- The "popular" or public account of his first expedition.

o    Stein, Sir Aurel (1912). Ruins of Desert Cathay: Personal Narrative of Exploration in Central Asia and Western Most China-2 Vols.  London: Macmillan.
- The "popular" or public account of his second, 1906, expedition.

o    Stein, Sir Aurel (1929). On Alexander's Track to the Indus: Personal Narrative of Explorations on the North-west Frontier of India.  London: Macmillan.

o    Stein, Sir Aurel. (1933). On Ancient Central Asian Tracks. Brief Narrative of Three Expeditions in Innermost Asia and North Western China.  London:  Macmillan & Company.
- A summary of his three main expeditions.

o    Walker, Annabel. (1995). Aurel Stein: Pioneer of the Silk Road. London: John Murray.


Stoddart, Col. Charles (??-1842)

In 1838 involved in the siege of Herat, in which Eldred Pottinger played a key role. Later in that year sent to Bokhara by the East India Company in order to forge an alliance with the Amir/Khan.  Instead, he was imprisoned in 1839.  Conolly, who volunteered to come to secure his release, was imprisoned with him.  Both were beheaded by the Amir in 1842.


Strachey, Henry

Brother of Richard.  In 1846 made an unauthorized trip to the Lake Manasarowar and Rakas Tal regions of Tibet.  In 1847 was appointed as a member of the second Ladakh-Tibet boundary commission, headed up by Alexander Cunningham.  In 1849, along with Richard, briefly made an unauthorized entry into Tibet after climbing the Niti Pass in Garhwal.


o    Strachey, Henry (1853). "Physical Geography of Western Tibet." Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. 23, 1-69.


Strachey, Richard

A political officer.  Crossed India's northern desert to Peshawar, where he served as secretary to the East India Company's first mission to Afghanistan.  In 1812 was British Resident in Benares.  Meeting Moorcroft in 1812, told him that it was possible to get to Bokhara via the old caravan routes.

(Note: I suspect, due to the dates, that the Richard described in the paragraph following may be the son of the Richard described above.)  In 1848, along with the botanist J.E. Winterbottom, made an unauthorized trip to Tibet, which repeated that made by his brother Henry, to the Lake Manasarowar and Rakas Tal regions.  In 1849, along with Henry, briefly made an unauthorized entry into Tibet after climbing the Niti Pass in Garhwal.  Brother of Henry.

Sykes, Sir Percy Molesworth

Officer, joined Indian cavalry in 1882.  Spent much time in Kashmir and Ladakh.  Joined intelligence service and spent time traveling and surveying in Russian Turkistan and eastern Persia.   Founded British consulate in Kerman, as outpost to check against further Russian movement  into southern Persia.  Took over British consulate in Meshed in 1905.  In 1915 was acting Consul-General at Kashgar, while Macartney was on leave.  Later in the year, was sent to Persia to raise an army of locals, the South Persia Rifles, to counter German activities in Persia against the British.  (See Hopkirk's On Secret Service East of Constantinople).


o    Sykes, Ella C. (1901 / 1st 1898?).  Through Persia on a Side-saddle.  London: George Bell & Sons.

o    Sykes, Ella, C. & Sykes, Sir Percy M.  (1920).  Through Deserts and Oasis of Central Asia. London: Macmillan and Co.

o    Sykes, Sir Percy M. (1902).  Ten Thousand Miles in Persia or Eight Years in Iran. London: John Murray.

o    Sykes, Sir Percy M. (1915).  History of Persia. 2 vols..  London: MacMillan & Co.

o    Sykes, Sir Percy M. (1926).  The Right Honorable Sir Mortimer Durand: A Biography. London: Cassell and Company.

o    Sykes, Sir Percy:  (1934). A history of exploration, from the earliest times to the present day.  London: George Routledge, 1934

o    Sykes, Sir Percy M. & Khan Bahadur Ahmad Din Khan (1910).  The Glory of the Shia World.  The Tale of a Pilgrimage. London: Macmillan and Co.

o    Wynn, Antony (2003).  Persia in the Great Game:  Sir Percy Sykes Explorer, Consul Soldier, Spy.  London:  John Murray.



Tahmasp Quli Khan, Shah

Son of Husain, the Shah of Persia who had surrendered to the Afghan invader Mahmud in 1722.  Tahmasp escaped the killing of Persian nobility that had been perpetrated by Mahmud, and his successor, Ashraf Khan.  He had maintained himself at Farahabad in Maxanderan.  There he was joined by Nadir Quli, who as Tahmasp's general, in 1729-30 pushed the Afghans out of Persia.  Following Nadir's defeat of the Afghans and subsequently the Turks, Tahmasp took control of the army.  He was defeated, and as a consequence was deposed by Nadir, who placed Tahmasp's son on the throne as a puppet.


Tai, Shen

Chinese amban (i.e., representative) in Lhasa at time of the Youngshusband mission.


Tamerlane: see Temur

Teichman, Sir Eric

British officer who traveled on the "Silk Road" on a Foreign Office mission in 1937.



o    Teichman, Sir Eric (1937). Journey to Turkistan. Hodder, London

Temur (Timur) (Temur-i-lang; Tamerlane )

A Turko-Mongol who in his lifetime conquered nearly all of Central Asia, his conquests being exceeded only by Alexander the Great.  Claimed to be a descendent of Genghis Khan, but the best that he could do is claim to have intermarried with his descendants.   Born near Samarkand where, beginning in 1369 he became ruler of Turkestan and conquered Persia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.  He sacked Delhi in 1398, and invaded both Turkey and Syria.  He died early in 1405, at Utrar, en route to invade China. He was the great-great-great grandfather of Babur, who established the Mughal empire in India.


Thapa (Thappa), Amar Singh  (Ujir Singh)

Gurkha general during Anglo-Nepalese mWar of 1814-16 conflict.  His British counterpart was Col. Sir David Ochterlony. [Cit. 1 ]

Thapa (Thappa), Bhim Sen (Bhimsen )(1775 - 1839)

Became chief administrator (kaji) in Kathmandu on return of Ranbahadur to Nepal as regent, or mukhtiyar, in 1904. Gained effective control over Gurkha Nepal in the power vacuum that exisited after the murder of Ranbahadur (1806), and became Prime Minister, maintained power until 1836.  (While Lamb has him in power until 1836, he is listed elsewhere as being Prime Minister from both 1806 or 1811 until 1837.) Took an expansionist position, in Sikkim and the Terai, which led to conflict with Britain, and the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16.


Thomas, George (~1758-1802)

Irish gunner, from Tipperary, in British Navy who deserted in 1781.  Hired out to Appa Khandi Rao, a feudatory of Scindia, who eventually adopted him as a son.  With 3,000 men, established a base in the district of Hariana, where he set up a domestic administration, and continued to build up his private army, which he used to expand his territory (including an attempt to conquer the Punjab), as well as hire them out.  Eventually  defeated in 1801 in Hansi, by Major Bourquin, Perron's second in command.  At the time, he was aided by officers Hopkins, a European, and the Eurasians Birch and Hearsey (who later traveled with Moorcroft).  Escorted by Lewis Smith to Abupshahr, where he stayed with the British Resident, then on to Benares, where he met with Wellesley.  Died of fever in Bahrampur, shortly thereafter, en route to Ireland. [Cit: 1]


Thompson, Dr. Thomas

Naturalist.  In 1847, along with Henry Strachey, was appointed to the commission headed by Cunningham, to map the boundaries of Lahul and Spiti.

Thorold, Surgeon-Captain W.G.

British officer who in 1891-2, accompanied Bower on the trip from Ladakh, across the Tibetan Plateau, to China.


Thuillier, Henry

Deputy Surveyor-General of India in 1856, when Waugh proposed naming the recently determined highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest, after George Everest.  Succeeded Waugh as Surveyor-General in 1861-77.


Timur:  See Temur

Timur Shah (1746 - 1793)

Member of the Popozai branch of the Durranis. Oldest son of Ahmed Shah, and his successor as Shah of Afghanistan in 1773.  Ruled until 1793.  Father of twenty-three sons, including Zaman Shah, Mahumed Shah, and Shah Shujah.  These three, in particular, played significant roles in the struggle for succession on his death (a struggle which led to the end of the Popozai dynasty.  Succeeded by his son, Zaman Shah.


Tolui (Toluia) Khan

The youngest son of Genghis Khan, and Great Khan of the Mongols from 1227-29.  He had four sons with his main wife, Sorkhokhtani: Mongke, Hulegu, Khubilai and Arik Boke, all of whom were highly able.  Three became Great Khan, and the other, Hulegu, established the Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq.


Torrens, Lieut.-Col. Henry D'Oyley

to come


o    Torrens, H.D. (1862). Travels in Ladak, Tartary and Kashmir.  London: Saunders, Otley and Co.


Traill, G.W.

First went to Kumaon in 1815 after Gurkha rule had ended.  Became first commissioner for Kumaon and Garhwal in 1817, and with the exception of one brief absence, was there until 1836 (Woodruff, vol.1, p. 229).  Tried to enter Tibet in 1819, but was turned back at the border.  Visited by Bishop Heber during his travels in 1824-25.  In 1830 crossed the axis of the Himalaya, establishing  "Traill's Pass" (17,700') between Nanda Devi and Nanda Kot (which lies to the south east of Nanda Devi).  This was a remarkable feat for the time, given that this was before the age of "mountaineering" and 50 years before the founding of the Alpine Club.


Trebeck, George (1800-1825)

Trained as a lawyer.   At the age of 19 was recruited to travel with Moorcroft on his 1819 trip to Bokhara as second in command, and was responsible for geographical logs and route selection.   He died in 1825 on his return home in Muzar, North Afghanistan, having buried both Moorcroft and Guthrie in Balkh.  Burnes visited the graves on his way to Bokhara in 1832.


o    Moorcroft, William, & Trebeck George. (1841). Travels in the Himalayan Provinces; of Hindustan and the Punjab, in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz and Bokhara, from 1819 to 1825. (2 Vols.) London: John Murray.


Trotter, Captain Henry

Commissioned in the Bengal Engineers. Surveyor with the GTS.  When Montgomerie returned to England in 1873 for health reasons, succeeded him in taking charge of the native Trans Himalaya explorers of the Survey of India (the Pundits).  Also in 1873, he joined the second Forsyth mission to Kashgar as surveyor.  Was part of the team led by Gordon that surveyed the Pamirs in 1874 on the way back from Kashgar following that mission.  Wrote up the reports of  The Havildar and Ata Mahomed, "The Mullah".


Tsiang, Hiuen

See Xuanzang.


Turner, Samuel

Relative of Warren Hastings.  Was sent by Hastings to Tibet on a mission (1783-84) which was a follow-up to the earlier one of Bogle (who had died in 1781).  Achieved moderate success in establishing trade with Tibet, but this was short-lived due to the British position taken by Cornwallis with respect to Nepal's invasion of Tibet in 1788.  The result was Tibet being essentially closed to Europeans until the Younghusband mission of 1904-5.  A summary of the references to Turner’s mission in contemporary Tibetan texts can be found in the article by Petech, referenced below.


o    Petech, Luciano. (1949). "The missions of Bogle and Turner according to the Tibetan texts". T'oung Pao, XXXIX, 330-346.

o    Turner, S. (1800).  An Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet; containing a narrative of a journey through Bootan, and part of Tibet To which are added, views taken on the spot, by Lieutenant Samuel Davis; and observations botanical, mineralogical, and medical, by Mr. Robert Saunders. London: printed by W. Bulmer & Co. for Messrs. G. & W. Nicol.

o    Woodcock, G. (1971).  Into Tibet:  The Early British Explorers.  London:  Faber & Faber.



Ukhtomsky, Prince Esper Esperovich (Ukhtomskiy, Oukhtomsky) (1861-1921)

Russian philosopher and writer.  Editor of the St. Petersburg News.  Was a student of eastern religions, including Buddhism, Islam and Theosophy. In 1904 wrote a book in Russian on the Younghusband mission, From the Land of Lamaism: on the English Campaign in Tibet.  First met Dorzhiev  in Buryatia.  Invited him on his first visit to St. Petersburg, and on his second visit arranged a meeting with Nicholas II at the Czar's summer residence at Livadia, in the Crimea.


o    Oukhtomsky,E. (1904). The English in Tibet; A Russian View. North American Review, 179.


Ullah, Mir Izzet (Izzut)

Member of a Kashmiri merchant house, with headquarters in Patna, and branches in Kashmir, Nepal, Western China, Tibet and Bengal.  (Lamb, 1960, p. 32).  Informant to Moorcroft. Sent in 1812-13 to Central Asia by Moorcroft to reconnoiter in in advance of his own trip.  Traveled via the Karakoram Pass, Yarkand, Kashgar, Bokhara and Kabul.  Leading up to the Anglo-Gurkha war of 1814-16, reported to Moorcroft that the Raja of Nepal had appealed to the Chinese in Lhasa for help in the attack by the British, which they felt was coming, and that the Chinese had agreed to assist if needed.  This intelligence (never verified, but consistent with the fears voiced by Dr. Buchanan) helped fuel Lord Moira's fear of repercussions on Anglo-Chinese relations due to the conflict.  As it turned out, there was no Chinese intervention, and the war had no such repercussions.


Umra Khan

to be added




British Resident in Benares in 1800, when the Raja of Nepal, Ranbahadur fled, and set up residence in exile there.  Was instructed to take advantage of the situation. The objective was to establish a British Resident in Kathmandu, in order to exploit the trade opportunities reported earlier by Abdul Kadir Khan. The Gurkhas were willing to treat since they were nervous that the British might otherwise plot with Ranbahadur.  The result was the treaty negotiated by Knox, and his subsequent residency in Kathmandu in 1801.


Vambery, Arminius

Hungarian orientalist and early traveler in Central Asia.  more to come.


o    Vambery, Arminius (1862). Travels in Central Asia: Being an Account of a Journey from Teheran Across the Turkoman Desert on the eastern Shore of the Caspian to Khiva, Bokhara, and Samarcand.  2 vols.  London:  John Murray.

o    Vambery, Arminius (1868). Sketches of Central Asia. Additional Chapters on My Travels and Adventures and on the Ethnology of Central Asia.  Philadelphia: Lippincott.

o    Vambery, Arminius (1883). Arminius Vambery, His Life and Struggles.  2 vols.  London:  T. Fisher Unwin.


Vasiliev, V.P.

Russian Tibetologist at end of the 19th century.


Ventura, Jean Baptiste, Count de Mandi (Ca. 1792- ??)

Italian by birth, from Modena.  Served in the imperial army of France.  On defeat of Napoleon, came to Lahore, along with  Allard, in 1822 to seek service in the Sikh army of Ranjit Singh. On approaching the Khyber Pass, en route to Lahore, encountered the Hungarian Körösi, who traveled the rest of the way with their caravan. [Cit. 1 ]  Became the most able of Ranjit Singh's foreign soldiers.


·         Grey, C. (H. L. O. Garrett, ed.) (1929). European Adventurers of Northern India, 1785 to 1849. Lahore, India: Superintendent, Government Printing, Punjab.


Vigne, G.T.


o    Vigne, G.T. (1842). Travels in Kashmir, Ladakh, Iskardo etc. (2 vols). London: Henry Colburn

o    Vigne, G.T. (1840). A Personal Narrative of a Visit to Ghanzni, Kabul and Afghanistan. and of a residence at the court of Dost Mohamed: with notices of Runjit Sing, Khiva, and the Russian expedition. London, Whittaker & Co.


Vitkevich, Capt. Yan (??-1838)

Russian officer of Lithuanian descent.  Fluent in French, Persian, Turkish.  On the staff of General Perovsky, who in 1837 sent him to Kabul in order to establish relations between Russia and Afghanistan.  While en route, his group was encountered in Persia by Rawlinson, who rode back to notify the British.   On reaching Kabul on Christmas eve, Vitkevich encountered Burnes, and treated with Dost Mohammed.  The latter caused a break between Dost Mohammed and the British in India, providing one of the key triggers for the first Anglo-Afghan war.  Called back to Russia after Palmerston landed troops in Persia and threatened the Shah with war if the siege of Herat did not stop.  Killed himself in St. Petersburg in late 1838.


von Hügel

See: Hügel, Baron Karl (Charles) Alexander, Freiherr von



Waddell, Col. L. Augustine

Officer in Indian Medical service.  Authority on TIbet.  In 1892 attempted to sneak into Tibet and reach Lhasa, disguised as a monk.  Was detected at the border and turned back.  Accompanied the Younghusband mission in 1904-5 as the official orientalist, beating out Auriel Stein, who had applied for the position, and considered Waddell an amateur.  During the expedition, assisted by David MacDonald, Waddell amassed  a substantial collection of Tibetan sacred and secular books.


o    Waddell, L. Augustine. (1899). Among the Himalayas. Westminister: Archibald Constable.

o    Waddell, L. Augustine. (1905).  <